重度の咀嚼筋筋力低下のため下顎は下垂し開口状態となる. (B) 患者は口を閉めるのに手を使う. (Sumner CJ; Fischbeck KH: Jaw drop in Kennedy's disease. Neurology 59: 1471-1472, 2002)
Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, X-linked 1 (SMAX1)
(Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy; SBMA)
(Kennedy disease; KD)
(Kennedy spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy)
(Bulbospinal muscular atrophy, X-linked)
(Bulbospinal neuropathy, X-linked recessive; XBSN)
責任遺伝子：313700 Angrogen receptor (AR)
Decreased fertility (妊孕性減少) [HP:0000144] 
Dysarthria (構音障害) [HP:0001260] 
Dysphonia (発声困難) [HP:0001618] 
Erectile abnormalities (勃起異常) [HP:0100639]
Gait disturbance (歩行障害) [HP:0001288] 
Gynecomastia (女性型乳房) [HP:0000771] 
Hyporeflexia (低反射) [HP:0001265] 
Muscular hypotonia (筋緊張低下) [HP:0001252] 
Skeletal muscle atrophy (骨格筋萎縮) [HP:0003202] 
Abnormal circulating lipid concentration (脂質濃度異常) [HP:0003119] 
Testicular atrophy (精巣萎縮) [HP:0000029] 
Type II diabetes mellitus (II 型糖尿病) [HP:0005978] 
Abnormality of the mouth (口異常) [HP:0000153] 
Adult onset (成人発症) [HP:0003581]
Bulbar palsy (球麻痺) [HP:0001283] 
Calf muscle hypertrophy (腓腹筋肥大) [HP:0008981] 
Dysphagia (嚥下障害) [HP:0002015] 
Elevated serum creatine kinase (血清クレアチニンキナーゼ上昇) [HP:0003236] 
Fasciculations (攣縮) [HP:0002380] 
Limb muscle weakness (四肢筋力低下) [HP:0003690] 
Muscle spasm (筋スパスム) [HP:0003394] 
Peripheral neuropathy (末梢ニューロパチー) [HP:0009830] 
Sensory neuropathy (感覚ニューロパチー) [HP:0000763] 
Slow progression (緩徐進行性) [HP:0003677]
Tremor (振戦) [HP:0001337] 
X-linked recessive inheritance (X連鎖劣性遺伝) [HP:0001419]
球衰弱 (75%), 咀嚼筋麻痺
攣縮 (口唇, 下顎, 舌) (90%)
【検査】血清 CK 高値
血清 testosterone 減少または増加
【その他】通常 30 ～ 50 歳で発症
androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS, 300068) にアレリック
(要約) 球脊髄性筋萎縮症 (Spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy0
(Kennedy 病; SBMA; X連鎖性球脊髄性筋萎縮症)
●球脊髄性筋萎縮症 (SBMA) は, 緩徐進行性の進行性神経筋疾患で, 下位運動ニューロン変性が, 筋力低下, 筋萎縮および線維束性攣縮を生じる
患者は, 軽度のアンドロゲン不応性のため, 女性型乳房, 精巣萎縮および妊孕性減少を生じることが多い
●診断：androgen receptor 遺伝子 (AR)の CAG トリヌクレオチドリピートの伸長をもつ (>35 CAGs)
※球筋 (bulbar muscle) は脳幹からの運動神経で支配され, 嚥下, 呼吸, 発語や他の咽喉の機能を調節する
※ SBMA は ALS と誤診されているかもしれない
●ヘテロ接合女性：通常無症状 (まれに筋けいれん, 振戦)
創始者効果のため日本人により多い [Tanaka et al 1996]
●AR遺伝子：8つのエクソン, 180 kb にスパンする
最も長い転写バリアントはNM_000044.3で 10,661 bp の長さがあり, coding region は 2,763 bp
女性の約98％はヘテロ接合である→18 〜 25 CAG が最も多い (アフリカ人が最も短く, アジア人が最も長い, 欧州人は中間)
・ARは steroid receptor superfamilyのメンバーである
NM_000044.3 の転写タンパクは 920-アミノ酸タンパクで分子量約 110 kdである
2番目の isoform は約 87 kd でほぼ全ての細胞でみられ．メチオニン188からの転写開始を反映する
→ARタンパクの形を変化させ, 神経変性を生じる (異常タンパクの毒性による?)
ARタンパクは, 脳, 脊髄および筋で発現される
球脊髄性筋萎縮症（spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy; SBMA）は, 緩徐に進行する四肢の筋力低下・筋萎縮や球麻痺を主症状とする成人発症の遺伝性下位運動ニューロン疾患である。海外ではKennedy病と呼ばれることも多い。本邦では, Kennedy-Alter-Sung症候群という名称も用いられる。
X染色体長腕近位部に位置する, アンドロゲン受容体遺伝子第1エクソン内にあるCAGの繰り返しが, 38以上に異常延長していることが本症の原因である（正常では36以下）。CAGの繰り返し数と発症年齢との間に逆相関がみられる。男性ホルモンが神経障害の発症・進展に深く関与していると考えられている。
神経症候としては, 下位運動ニューロンである顔面, 舌, 及び四肢近位部優位の筋萎縮及び筋力低下と筋収縮時の著明な筋線維束性収縮が主症状である。筋力低下は30～60歳代に下肢で出現することが多い。四肢深部腱反射は全般に低下し, 上位運動ニューロン徴候はみられない。手指の振戦や筋痙攣が筋力低下の発症に先行することがある。喉頭痙攣による短時間の呼吸困難を自覚することもある。深部感覚優位の軽徴な感覚障害が特に下肢遠位部でみられることもある。進行すると嚥下障害, 呼吸機能低下などが見られ, 呼吸器感染を繰り返すようになる。睾丸萎縮, 女性化乳房, 女性様皮膚変化などの軽度のアンドロゲン不全症候がみられる。血液検査では, CKが高値を示すことが多く, 耐糖能異常, 高脂血症, 軽度の肝機能異常を合併することも多い。
有効な治療法は確立していない。症状の進行に応じた運動療法とともに, 誤嚥予防などの生活指導を行い, 耐糖能異常, 高脂血症などの合併症に対して治療を行う。男性ホルモン抑制療法について臨床試験が進められている。
気管切開・人工呼吸器装着までに至る症例は少ないが, 呼吸筋麻痺が高度になった場合, 非侵襲的陽圧換気法（NIPPV；non-invasive positive pressure ventilation）の導入も検討すべきである。廃用性萎縮を防止する上で, できるだけ個々の状態に応じた自助具などを用いて, ADLを維持することが重要である。
液体での誤嚥やむせがみられる場合, とろみをつけるなど食形態の工夫を行う必要がある。重度の嚥下障害がある場合, 胃瘻を造設するなどして経管栄養を導入する。
本症の神経症候は緩徐進行性で, 徐々に筋力が低下し, 発症10年程度で嚥下障害が顕著となり, 発症15年程度で車イス生活を余儀なくされることが多い。通常, 誤嚥性肺炎などの呼吸器感染症が直接死因となることが多い。ただし筋萎縮性側索硬化症（ALS）とは異なり, 気管切開を伴う人工呼吸管理を必要とすることは少ないとされる。
Ａ．神経所見；以下の神経所見(ア) (イ) (ウ) (エ)のうち２つ以上を示す。
(ア) 球症状 (発語・発声・嚥下・呼吸・循環などの障害)
(イ) 下位運動ニューロン徴候 (弛緩性麻痺, 深部腱反射減弱〜消失，表在反射消失，筋力低下，Babinski 反射なし)
上記の A, B, C をすべてみたすもの、または AとDの両方をみたすものを球脊髄性筋萎縮症と診断する。
家族歴が明らかでない場合, 特徴的な症状から臨床的な診断は可能であるものの, 確定診断には遺伝子検査が必要となる。現在, 遺伝子検査に関する費用については保険適応 (SRLなど)となっている。
modified Rankin Scale (mRS)、食事・栄養、呼吸のそれぞれの評価スケールを用いて、いずれかが３以上を対象とする。
(Comment) Some overlap with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy
(Occurrence) >50 cases:
(Responsible gene) *313700 Androgen receptor (AR)
(1) Androgen insensitivity, complete (300068)
.0001 Androgen insensitivity, complete [AR, PARTIAL DEL] (RCV000010476) (Brown et al. 1988)
.0002 Androgen insensitivity, complete [AR, PARTIAL DEL] (RCV000010477) (Pinsky et al. 1989, Trifiro et al. 1989, Brown et al. 1988)
.0003 Androgen insensitivity, complete [AR, ARG773CYS] (rs137852562) (RCV000010478) (Trifiro et al. 1989)
.0004 Androgen insensitivity, complete [AR, TRP717TER] (rs137852563) (gnomAD:rs137852563) (RCV000010479) (Sai et al. 1990)
.0005 Androgen insensitivity, complete [AR, VAL866MET] (rs137852564) (RCV000763628...) (Lubahn et al. 1989)
.0006 Androgen insensitivity, complete [AR, TRP794TER] (rs137852565) (gnomAD:rs137852565) (RCV000698414...) (Marcelli et al. 1990)
.0007 Androgen insensitivity, complete [AR, LYS588TER] (rs137852566) (RCV000010482) (Marcelli et al. 1990)
.0009 Androgen insensitivity, complete [AR, LYS882TER] (rs137852568) (RCV000010485) (Trifiro et al. 1991)
.0010 Androgen insensitivity, complete [AR, ARG772CYS] (rs137852562) (RCV000010478) (Marcelli et al. 1991)
.0012 Androgen insensitivity, complete [AR, MET786VAL] (rs137852570) (RCV000010488) (Nakao et al. 1992)
.0015 Androgen insensitivity, complete [AR, ARG773HIS] (rs137852572) (RCV000010493) (Prior et al. 1992)
.0017 Androgen insensitivity, complete [AR, VAL865MET] (RCV000763628...) (Kazemi-Esfarjani et al. 1993)
.0021 Androgen insensitivity, complete [AR, GLN60TER] (rs137852575) (RCV000010499) (Zoppi et al. 1993)
.0022 Androgen insensitivity, complete [AR, 5-KB DEL, EX E] (RCV000010500) (MacLean et al. 1993)
.0023 Androgen insensitivity, complete [AR, 5-KB DEL, EX F,G] (RCV000010501) (MacLean et al. 1993)
.0028 Androgen insensitivity, complete [AR, LEU676PRO] (rs137852579) (RCV000010506) (Belshamet al. 1995)
.0034 Androgen insensitivity, complete [AR, LEU707ARG] (rs137852585) (RCV000010511) (Lumbroso et al. 1996)
.0035 Androgen insensitivity, complete [AR, CYS579PHE] (rs137852586) (RCV000010512) (Imasaki et al. 1996)
.0036 Androgen insensitivity, complete [AR, PHE582TYR] (rs137852587) (RCV000010513) (Imasaki et al. 1996)
.0039 Androgen insensitivity, complete [AR, MET780ILE] (rs137852589) (gnomAD:rs137852589) (RCV000010516) (Jakubiczka et al. 1997; Knoke et al. 1999)
.0045 Androgen insensitivity, complete [AR, 1-BP INS, 179A] (rs759327087) (gnomAD:rs759327087) (RCV000010522) (Zhu et al. 1999)
.0046 Androgen insensitivity, complete [AR, 2-BP DEL, 180GC] (rs869320731) (RCV000010489) (Zhu et al. 1999)
.0048 Androgen insensitivity syndrome [AR, SER888SER] (rs137852594) (RCV000010524) (Hellwinkel et al. 2001)
.0050 Androgen insensitivity syndrome [AR, LEU712PHE] (rs137852595) (RCV000010526) (Holterhus et al. 2000)
.0051 Androgen insensitivity syndrome [AR, GLY577ARG] (rs137852596) (RCV000010527) (Nguyen et al. 2001)
.0052 Androgen insensitivity syndrome [AR, SER865PRO] (rs137852597) (RCV000010528) (Mongan et al 2002)
.0053 Androgen insensitivity syndrome [AR, PHE856LEU] (rs137852598) (gnomAD:rs137852598) (RCV000010490) (Mongan et al. 2002)
.0054 Androgen insensitivity syndrome [AR, ARG840CYS] (RCV000010504...) (Chu et al. 2002)
.0055 Androgen insensitivity, complete [AR, HIS689PRO] (rs137852599) (RCV000010530) (Rosa et al. 2002)
.0057 Androgen insensitivity, complete [AR, GLY743GLU] (rs137852600 ) (RCV000010533) (Poujol et al. 2002)
.0058 Androgen insensitivity, complete [AR, INS/DEL, EX5] (rs869320732) (RCV000010534) (Vilchis et al. 2003)
(2) Androgen insensitivity, partial (312300)
.0008 Androgen insensitivity, partial [AR, TYR761CYS] (rs137852567) (RCV000010484) (Grino et al. 1989; McPhaul et al. 1991)
.0011 Androgen insensitivity, partial [AR, ALA771THR] (rs137852569) (RCV000640478...) (Klocker et al. 1992)
.0018 Androgen insensitivity, partial [AR, VAL865LEU] (rs137852564) (RCV000010496) (Kazemi-Esfarjani et al. 1993)
.0019 Androgen insensitivity, partial [AR, ARG855HIS] (rs9332971) (RCV000010497...) (Batch et al. 1993)
.0025 Androgen insensitivity, partial [AR, ARG839HIS] (rs9332969) (gnomAD:rs9332969) (RCV000010503...) (Beitel et al. 1994)
.0026 Androgen insensitivity, partial [AR, ARG839CYS] (rs137852577) (RCV000010504...) (Beitel et al. 1994)
.0038 Androgen insensitivity, partial [AR, GLU2LYS] (dbSNP:rs104894742) (RCV000010515) (Choong et al. 1996)
.0040 Androgen insensitivity, partial [AR, ARG846HIS] (RCV000010497...) (Boehmer et al. 1997; Boehmer et al. 2001)
.0041 Androgen insensitivity, partial [AR, IVS2AS, T-A, -11] (RCV000010518) (Bruggenwirth et al. 1997)
.0042 Androgen insensitivity, partial [AR, LEU172TER] (rs137852590) (RCV000010519) (Holterhus et al. 1997; Boehmer et al. 2001)
.0043 Androgen insensitivity, partial [AR, GLN798GLU] (rs137852591) (gnomAD:rs137852591) (RCV000010520...) (Wang et al. 1998)
.0044 Androgen insensitivity, partial [AR, MET807THR] (rs137852592) (RCV000010521) (Ong et al. 1999)
.0049 Androgen insensitivity, partial [AR, IVS6, G-T, +5] (RCV000010525) (Sammarco et al. 2000)
.0056 Androgen insensitivity, partial [AR, GLY743VAL] (rs137852600) (RCV000010532...) (Androgen insensitivity, complete) (Nakao et al. 1993; Lobaccaro et al. 1993)
.0059 Androgen insensitivity, partial [AR, SER740CYS] (rs137852601) (RCV000010535) (Pitteloud et al. 2004)
.0060 Androgen insensitivity, partial [AR, ALA645ASP, SHORT POLYGLYCINE REPEAT, LONG POLYGLUTAMINE REPEAT] (rs1800053) (gnomAD:rs1800053) (RCV000010536...) (Werner et al. 2006)
.0013 Prostate cancer [AR, VAL730MET] (rs137852571) (gnomAD:rs137852571) (RCV000010491) (Newmark et al. 1992; Visakorpi et al. 1995)
.0016 Androgen insensitivity, partial, with or without breast cancer [AR, ARG607GLN] (rs137852573) (RCV000010494...) (Wooster et al. 1992; Weidemann et al. 1998)
.0024 Androgen insensitivity, partial, with breast cancer [AR, ARG608LYS] (rs137852576) (RCV000010502) (Lobaccaro et al. 1993)
.0027 Prostate cancer [AR, THR877ALA] (rs137852578) (RCV000010505) (Gaddipati et al. 1994)
.0029 Prostate cancer [AR, THR877SER] (rs137852580) (RCV000010507) (Taplin et al. 1995); Wilson 1995)
.0030 Prostate cancer [AR, HIS874TYR] (rs137852581) (RCV000010508) (Taplin et al. 1995)
.0031 Prostate cancer [AR, GLN902ARG] (rs137852582) (RCV000010509) (Taplin et al. 1995)
.0032 Prostate cancer [AR, ALA721THR] (rs137852583) (RCV000010510) (Taplin et al. 1995)
.0033 Prostate cancer [AR, SER647ASN] (rs137852584) (RCV000010483) (Taplin et al. 1995)
.0047 Prostate cancer susceptibility [AR, ARG726LEU] (rs137852593) (gnomAD:rs137852593) (RCV000010523) (Mononen et al. 2000)
(4) Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, X-linked (Kennedy disease) (313200)
.0014 Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, X-linked [AR, (CAG)n EXPANSION] (rs193922933](RCV000010492) (Kennedy disease) (La Spada et al. 1991; Lund et al. 2001)
(5) Hypospadias 1, X-linked (300633)
.0020 Hypospadias 1, X-linked [AR, ILE869MET] (rs137852574) (RCV000010498) (Batch et al.1993)
.0037 Hypospadias 1, X-linked [AR, PRO546SER] (rs137852588) (RCV000010514) (Sutherland et al. 1996)
*AR: Androgen receptor ; genome 186,588 bp, Plus strand; 920 aa, 99188 Da
Exons: 8, Coding exons: 8, Transcript length: 10,652 bps, Translation length: 920 residues
・Androgen 受容体 (ARs) (dihydrotestosterone receptors) は NR3C クラスの核ホルモン受容体である (mineralocorticoid, progesterone および glucocorticoid 受容体を含む)
●androgen receptor 遺伝子は 90 kb 以上の長さがあり, 3つの主要な機能的ドメインをもつタンパクをコードする
→ N-terminal domain, DNA-binding domain, および androgen-binding domain
ホルモンリガンドと結合し, 受容体は accessory proteins から分離し, 核へ移動し, ダイマー化し, androgen 反応性遺伝子の転写を刺激する
N末トランス活性化ドメインのpolyglutamine と polyglycineをコードする, 2つの多形トリヌクレオチドリピート分節を含む
polyglutamine tract (正常9-34リピート) の38-62リピートへの伸長は, spinal bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA, Kennedy's disease)を生じる
転写因子活性は結合した coactivator および corepressor タンパクにより仲介される
HIPK3 および ZIPK/DAPK3により活性化されるが, リン酸化はなれない
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA, SMAX1), also known as Kennedy disease, is caused by a trinucleotide CAG repeat expansion in exon 1 of the gene encoding the androgen receptor (AR; 313700.0014). CAG repeat numbers range from 38 to 62 in SBMA patients, whereas healthy individuals have 10 to 36 CAG repeats.
Mutations in the AR gene also cause androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS; 300068).
Kennedy disease is an X-linked recessive form of spinal muscular atrophy. It occurs only in men. Age at onset is usually in the third to fifth decade of life, but earlier involvement has been reported. The disorder is characterized by slowly progressive limb and bulbar muscle weakness with fasciculations, muscle atrophy, and gynecomastia (Harding et al., 1982). The disorder is clinically similar to, but genetically distinct from, classic forms of autosomal spinal muscular atrophy (see, e.g., SMA1; 253300).
Kennedy et al. (1968) described spinal-bulbar muscular atrophy in 9 males from 2 unrelated kindreds. Patients had onset of fasciculations followed by muscle weakness and wasting at approximately 40 years of age. Characteristic features included bulbar signs, facial fasciculations, and dysphagia. Three patients had gynecomastia. Pyramidal, sensory, and cerebellar signs were absent, suggesting lower motor neuron involvement. The disorder was compatible with a long life. Early reports of Japanese families may have referred to the same disorder (Takikawa, 1953; Murakami, 1957; Kurland, 1957; Tsukagoshi et al., 1965).
Quarfordt et al. (1970) described 4 brothers with adult-onset proximal spinal muscular atrophy. Type II hyperlipoproteinemia was present in all 4 and was absent from their 1 unaffected sib, a sister. Some children of affected males, too young to show the neurologic abnormality, also showed hyperlipoproteinemia.
Schoenen et al. (1979) listed the clinical hallmarks of Kennedy disease as onset in the third decade, slow progression, involvement of facial and bulbar muscles, and wasting of the proximal and, in some cases, the distal musculature. Clinical signs were usually asymmetric, and there were consistent and abundant fasciculations predominantly in the perioral muscles. Other features included intention tremor and gynecomastia. The disorder shows X-linked recessive inheritance. Endocrinologic studies suggested an anatomic defect in the hypothalamus leading to androgen deficiency and estrogen excess.
Punnett and Schotland (1979) studied a family with 7 affected males in 4 generations.
Pearn and Hudgson (1978) described a spinal muscular atrophy syndrome characterized by adolescent onset, gross hypertrophy of the calves, and a slowly progressive clinical course. They proposed X-linked inheritance for the family of 1 of their patients who had an affected brother and 2 affected maternal uncles. In a study of 100 patients with SMA, Bouwsma and Van Wijngaarden (1980) found 23 cases with hypertrophied calves, elevated serum creatine kinase and onset between 1 and 20 years of age. All were male and many were brothers.
Harding et al. (1982) reported 10 men with SBMA from 8 families. Proximal limb muscle weakness developed in the third to fifth decades of life, often preceded by muscle cramps on exertion and tremor of the hands. Weakness and fasciculation of the facial muscles and tongue were also prominent. All had gynecomastia and some were infertile. Plasma creatine kinase levels were increased and muscle biopsies showed neurogenic atrophy with secondary myopathic changes.
In 4 Italian males in 3 sibships related as first cousins and by history in their maternal grandfather, Guidetti et al. (1986) described an X-linked adult-onset neurogenic muscular atrophy, mainly proximal, with late distal and bulbar involvement. All patients had essential tremor, gynecomastia, and impotence, although all affected males had children. One patient had hyperlipidemia.
Hausmanowa-Petrusewicz et al. (1983) studied 8 of 12 male patients with X-linked spinal muscular atrophy. Six had had gynecomastia. First muscle symptoms began between 21 and 44 years of age, at which time the patients also noted disturbances in their sexual function. Some were reported to have sterility. Biopsy showed pronounced involutional changes in Leydig cells, and plasma testosterone level was decreased. Muscle involvement was most marked proximally in the limbs. Fasciculations in the muscles of the trunk and limbs and fibrillation and atrophy of the tongue were noted. Bulbar muscle involvement was less striking than in reports by others.
Warner et al. (1990) reported 4 affected brothers and an affected maternal uncle. In addition to typical neurologic features including early muscle cramps, visible fasciculation and weakness of oropharyngeal and limb muscles, dysarthria, and areflexia, the patients showed facial asymmetry, gynecomastia, testicular atrophy, and infertility. All 5 affected males had hypobetalipoproteinemia. Warner et al. (1990) pointed to other reported cases of lipid abnormalities, but concluded that the relationship to the neurologic disorder was unclear. They stated that Fischbeck had informed them in 1989 of linkage between the disorder in this family (Fischbeck et al., 1986) and markers on Xq13.21.
Amato et al. (1993) reported 17 SBMA patients from 7 families. One was a 71-year-old man. Weakness in all patients was usually slowly progressive, but they described 1 exception: a man who rapidly progressed from being a healthy firefighter to wheelchair-dependency in less than 1.5 years. Four carrier females had no clinical features of the disorder.
Doyu et al. (1993) reported a case of extraordinarily late onset of this disorder in an 84-year-old Japanese man, with no family history of any related disease, who noted mild difficulty in climbing stairs when he was in his mid-seventies. At the age of 83, painful muscle cramps in the calves and difficulty in walking were more apparent, although he could ride a bicycle and work in the field. At age 84, he showed diffuse muscular weakness and striking amyotrophy in the 4 limbs as well as in the truncal and facial muscles. The tongue was mildly atrophic, but there was no dysphagia. Fasciculation was striking in his face, tongue, neck, anterior chest, and arm and leg muscles, and was enhanced by mild voluntary contractions. There was no gynecomastia. The number of tandem CAG repeats in the first exon of the AR gene was 40, which was the shortest in the authors' series of patients with SBMA; 45 of their cases showed a range from 40 to 55, and the normal range was 17 to 24. No statement was made about children of the patient. This is likely one of the oldest and most mildly affected patients reported.
In studies of 34 patients with Kennedy disease, Sperfeld et al. (2002) found that onset was in adolescence, which is earlier than previously thought. Most frequently, early symptoms were gynecomastia, muscle pain, and premature muscle exhaustion. Weakness was not a typical initial symptom and was frequently found in distal limbs if present early. They found a correlation between the number of CAG repeats and the age at onset of weakness, but not to the age at onset of Kennedy disease.
Echaniz-Laguna et al. (2005) reported an Italian family in which 7 boys had early-onset, rapidly progressive SBMA. Molecular analysis detected expanded CAG repeats ranging from 50 to 54, in the intermediate range. The mean age at onset was 13 years (range 8 to 15) of proximal upper and lower limb atrophy and weakness, which was associated with postural upper limb tremor in 4 patients. All patients developed fasciculations and dysarthria in their teens, and 3 patients had loss of independent ambulation in their mid-twenties. All the boys had prepubertal gynecomastia before age 8, without being overweight. EMG tests in 4 patients showed widespread denervation in all four limbs and bulbar muscles. Echaniz-Laguna et al. (2005) noted that 3 patients had been diagnosed with nonspecific limb-girdle muscular dystrophy in childhood.
Schmidt et al. (2002) described 2 sisters, aged 34 and 42 years, homozygous for the CAG expansion in the AR gene causing Kennedy disease, in whom symptoms were limited to occasional muscle cramps and twitches. Both sibs had mild hand tremor, and the elder had rare perioral fasciculations and mild motor axonal loss in the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Both parents were deceased, but each was thought to have contributed an X chromosome containing the CAG expansion to the sibs. This was supported by a history of muscle disease in the father and the diagnosis of Kennedy disease in a maternal cousin. Women heterozygous for the Kennedy disease gene are generally asymptomatic; however, Kennedy et al. (1968) noted in their original report that 'several female siblings of affected males had muscle cramps.' One of the remarkable features of the homozygous sisters reported by Schmidt et al. (2002) was the mildness of their manifestations. The authors suggested that the increased severity of Kennedy disease in men is due to higher levels of androgen receptor stimulation compared to women, which may produce higher levels of abnormal transcriptional regulation. Blockade of androgen receptor may thus offer some therapeutic benefit in Kennedy disease.
Nagashima et al. (1988) described the autopsy findings in 2 affected brothers, both of whom died in their sixties. An unusual feature was the presence of distal sensory neuropathy. In a clinicopathologic study involving 9 cases, with autopsies on 3 and sural nerve biopsies from 6 others, Sobue et al. (1989) also concluded that a lower motor and primary sensory neuronopathy is a major feature. According to them, the main feature of Kennedy disease distinguishing it from other autosomal forms of SMA is the presence of sensory abnormalities; sensory abnormalities are not found in true SMA.
In their series of 10 patients, Harding et al. (1982) found that most patients had decreased sensory nerve action potentials in the absence of clinical sensory loss. Wilde et al. (1987) reported neurophysiologic investigations and sural nerve biopsy in patients with SBMA. The findings confirmed that both motor and sensory nerves were affected. The authors stressed the importance of recognizing this disorder as a separate entity which should not be classified with the spinal muscular atrophies. Both Harding et al. (1982)and Wilde et al. (1987) referred to the disorder as X-linked bulbospinal neuronopathy. Boylan (1991) even suggested that Kennedy disease should more accurately be characterized as a motor sensory neuronopathy rather than as an SMA.
Kachi et al. (1992) also reported prolonged sensory conduction times in patients with SBMA. These results were consistent with pathologic findings in which primary sensory neurons are involved as well as the lower motor neurons, whereas upper motor neurons are well preserved.
Dejager et al. (2002) performed detailed endocrine investigations in 22 men with Kennedy disease. Clinical signs of partial androgen resistance were present in more than 80% of the patients, with gynecomastia being the most prominent. Thirteen patients had alteration of testicular exocrine function. Hormonal profile of partial androgen resistance was present in 86% of the patients, with an elevated testosterone level in 68%. Dejager et al. (2002) noted that androgen insensitivity seems to appear later in life in Kennedy disease, similar to the development of neurologic signs. The authors stated that in clinical practice, Kennedy disease patients are often misdiagnosed as having ALS, and that careful examination of the endocrine component could avoid such a deleterious misdiagnosis.
Sumner and Fischbeck (2002) reported 2 patients who presented with 'jaw drop,' preferential weakness of the temporalis and masseter muscles, who were later found to have expanded CAG repeats in the AR gene. Both patients were given incorrect diagnoses at first, including diabetic sensory polyneuropathy, myasthenia gravis (254200), and ALS. The authors emphasized that jaw drop may be a presenting sign in patients with SBMA.
Sperfeld et al. (2005) found that 23 (47%) of 49 patients with Kennedy disease had recurrent laryngospasm compared to 3 (2%) of 147 patients with early-stage ALS.
Georgiou et al. (2001) developed a single-cell PCR assay for the AR gene and described the application of this assay for preimplantation genetic diagnosis in a couple at risk, where the female partner was a carrier of 47 repeats. Diagnosis was based on the detection of both normal and expanded alleles. Allele dropout of the expanded allele was observed. Neither expansions nor contractions were observed in the blastomeres biopsied from 11 embryos. Two embryos were unaffected, 8 were female carriers, and 1 was an affected male embryo.
Fischbeck et al. (1986) found linkage of Kennedy disease to a locus on chromosome Xq21.3-q22 (maximum lod score of 3.53 at theta = 0.04 for marker DXYS1).
Mukai and Yasuma (1987) found that colorblindness (see 303900) and bulbospinal muscular atrophy were not closely linked in a Japanese family.
Ferlini et al. (1991) mapped the SBMA locus to Xq12 by linkage with a considerable number of RFLP markers.
In 35 unrelated patients with SBMA, La Spada and Fischbeck (1991) and La Spada et al. (1991) identified an expanded CAG repeat in the first exon of the AR gene (313700.0014). The abnormality was not observed in 263 normal persons. The AR CAG repeat is normally polymorphic, with an average repeat number of 22 +/- 3. SBMA patients had 11 different (CAG)n alleles, with repeat numbers ranging from 40 to 52, more than 6 standard deviations above the normal mean. The AR gene abnormality segregated with the disease in 15 SBMA families, with no recombination in 61 meioses (lod score = 13.2 at theta = 0.0). The CAG repeat encodes a polyglutamine tract in a portion of the AR protein that is not directly involved in hormone- or DNA-binding. There was no correlation between the size of the CAG repeat and the presence of altered in vitro androgen binding. However, there was correlation between CAG repeat length and disease severity; the mildest clinical manifestations were associated with the smallest CAG repeat.
Ferlini et al. (1995) identified a CAG repeat expansion in the AR gene in 3 of 25 sporadic patients with heterogeneous motor neuron diseases.
By in vitro examination of different tissues from 2 SBMA patients, Spiegel et al. (1996) did not find somatic instability of the CAG repeat expansion. Jedele et al. (1998) found no evidence of somatic mosaicism in multiple tissues from a fetus with SBMA.
La Spada et al. (1991) observed a correlation between CAG length and disease severity. In an analysis of 26 Japanese SBMA patients from 21 families, Doyu et al. (1992) found the same results: the greater the number of CAG repeats, the lower the age of onset of limb muscular weakness and the higher the age-adjusted disability score. La Spada et al. (1992) concluded that although there was a correlation between disease severity and CAG repeat length, other factors seemed to contribute to the phenotypic variability. They found that expanded (CAG)n alleles underwent alteration in length when transmitted from parent to offspring. Of 45 meioses examined, 12 (27%) demonstrated a change in CAG repeat number. Both expansions and contractions were observed, although their magnitude was small. There was a greater rate of instability in male meiosis than in female meiosis.
The findings of Amato et al. (1993) in 17 patients from 7 families appeared to be at variance with the findings of others: no large expansion of the mutation was observed in transmission through 3 generations of 1 family, and phenotypic expression, although variable between and within families, was not related to the size of the mutation. The authors stated that anticipation had not clearly been observed in Kennedy disease.
Warner et al. (1992) studied androgen receptor function in cultured scrotal skin fibroblasts from 8 patients with Kennedy syndrome from 4 families. High-affinity dihydrotestosterone binding was decreased in 3 patients from 1 family similar to values in subjects with androgen resistance syndromes. The values were normal in 5 SBMA patients from 3 other families.
Ogata et al. (1994) used immunohistochemical staining with monoclonal antibody 5F4 directed against the androgen receptor to examine the distribution of androgen receptors in spinal cord and brainstem in 2 cases of Kennedy spinal bulbar muscular atrophy and in 4 cases of sporadic ALS. In all cases, there was dense immunoreactivity in the nuclei of anterior horn cells, as well as some neurons of the substantia gelatinosa, nucleus proprius, substantia intermedia, and central gray. In the brainstem, there was reactivity in the neurons of cranial nerves III, IV, and VI, as well as of the nucleus of Onufrowicz. Even severely affected motor neurons showed positive immunostaining.
By postmortem examination of 5 SBMA patients, Banno et al. (2006) found that the degree of mutant AR accumulation in spinal motor neurons correlated to that of scrotal skin epithelial cells. Mutant AR accumulation also correlated with CAG repeat length and disease severity. Scrotal biopsies from 13 additional patients also correlated with CAG repeat length and disease severity. In 5 additional SBMA patients who received subcutaneous leuprorelin injections, mutant AR protein was decreased in scrotal skin biopsies. After 24 weeks of treatment, there were no significant motor function changes, but 3 patients expressed subjective improvement. Banno et al. (2006) concluded that scrotal skin biopsy findings may be a biomarker of SBMA and could be used in therapeutic clinical trials.
Tanaka et al. (1996) investigated the origin of the SBMA mutations in the Japanese population by analyzing the (CAG)n and (GGC)n repeats of the AR gene locus in unrelated SBMA and normal X chromosomes in Japanese males. They found linkage disequilibrium between the (GGC)n haplotype and the (CAG)n mutation. Their results demonstrated a founder effect for SBMA in a Japanese population, indicating that de novo pathologic expansion of the CAG repeat is probably rarer in SBMA than in other diseases due to triplet repeat expansion.
Udd et al. (1998) estimated the prevalence of Kennedy disease in the Vasa region of western Finland to be 13 per 85,000 male inhabitants. Kennedy disease was the most common motor neuron disorder in the Vasa region, exceeding the prevalence of ALS by a factor of 2. None of the patients, despite previous examinations, had correct diagnoses before 1995. Nine of the 10 families belonged to the Swedish-Finnish language group, yielding a 1.75 times higher prevalence within that specific part of the population. All cases were confirmed by DNA tests. The range of CAG-repeat expansions in the patients was 41 to 47 repeats (normal up to 35). There was no clear correlation between the repeat number and the clinical severity of the disease. One heterozygous female alive in her eighties had a movement disability beginning at age 60. Her diagnosis remained unclassified progressive encephalopathy with myoclonus leading to a bedridden state. It was uncertain whether the heterozygous AR mutation had any causal connection with her CNS disorder.
Lund et al. (2000) haplotyped 13 Finnish, 10 Swedish, 12 Danish, and 2 Norwegian SBMA families with a total of 45 patients and 7 carriers for multiple microsatellite markers spanning a 25.2-cM region around the AR gene in search of a genetic founder effect. All the Scandinavian SBMA families shared the same 18-repeat microsatellite allele for the intragenic GGC repeat, which was present in only 24% of the controls. Linkage disequilibrium was also seen for the closest microsatellite markers. In addition, extended haplotypes of the Finnish, Swedish, and Danish SBMA families revealed country-specific common founder haplotypes, which over time became gradually shortened by recombinations. No common haplotype was found among the controls. The data suggested that the SBMA mutation was introduced into western Finland 20 generations earlier. Haplotype analysis implied a common ancestor for most Scandinavian SBMA patients.
Lund et al. (2001) haplotyped 123 SBMA families (from Finland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Germany, Belgium, Italy, Japan, Australia, and Canada) for the intragenic SNP marker ARd12, the intragenic GGC repeat, and 16 microsatellite markers spanning a 25.2 cM region around the AR gene. All the Finnish, Swedish, and Norwegian patients carried the same kind of haplotype with absent intragenic ARd12 StuI site, while the patients from all other countries, including Denmark, harbored the StuI site, suggesting that the Danish patients derived their disease chromosome from another ancestor than the previously reported common Scandinavian founder (Lund et al., 2000). The haplotype analysis showed 2 founder haplotypes in German, 3 in Italian, 2 in Japanese, and 2 in Australian patients, while no common haplotype was detected among the Canadian patients. These results implied that the CAG repeat expansion mutation in SBMA is not a unique event. No particular expansion-prone haplotype could be detected. Among 95 SBMA patients with defined ages at onset, the authors found a weak negative correlation between the CAG repeat length and the age of onset.
Sinnreich and Klein (2004) reviewed the early history of Kennedy disease.
McManamny et al. (2002) developed a transgenic mouse model of SBMA expressing a full-length human AR cDNA carrying 65 (AR-65) or 120 CAG repeats (AR-120), with widespread expression driven by the cytomegalovirus promoter. Mice carrying the AR-120 transgene displayed behavioral and motor dysfunction, while mice carrying 65 CAG repeats showed a mild phenotype. Progressive muscle weakness and atrophy was observed in AR-120 mice and was associated with the loss of alpha-motor neurons in the spinal cord. There was no evidence of neurodegeneration in other brain structures. Motor dysfunction was observed in both male and female animals, suggesting that the polyglutamine repeat expansion may cause a dominant gain-of-function mutation in AR. The male mice displayed a progressive reduction in sperm production consistent with testis defects reported in human patients.
Monks et al. (2007) found that transgenic mice overexpressing wildtype human AR exclusively in skeletal muscle displayed androgen-dependent muscle weakness and early death. Transgenic mice also showed changes in muscle morphology and gene expression consistent with neurogenic atrophy and exhibited motor axon loss. These features reproduced those seen in models of Kennedy disease. Monks et al. (2007) concluded that toxicity in skeletal muscle is sufficient to cause motoneuron disease and that overexpression of AR can exert toxicity comparable with that of the polyglutamine-expanded protein.
Montie et al. (2009) genetically manipulated the nuclear localization signal of polyglutamine-expanded AR. Transgenic mice expressing this mutant AR displayed inefficient nuclear translocation and substantially improved motor function compared with Sbma mice. Analysis of cell models of SBMA indicated that nuclear localization of polyglutamine-expanded AR was necessary but not sufficient for aggregation and toxicity and that androgen binding by AR was required for these disease features. Studies of cultured motor neurons showed that the autophagic pathway was able to degrade cytoplasmically retained polyglutamine-expanded AR and represented an endogenous neuroprotective mechanism. Pharmacologic induction of autophagy rescued motor neurons from the toxic effects of even nuclear-residing mutant AR, suggesting a therapeutic role for autophagy in this nucleus-centric disease. Montie et al. (2009) concluded that polyglutamine-expanded AR must reside within nuclei in the presence of its ligand to cause SBMA.
In Drosophila and human tissue culture models of SBMA, Caplen et al. (2002) found that sequence-specific small dsRNAs of 22 nucleotides rescued the toxicity and caspase-3 activation induced by plasmids expressing a transcript encoding an expanded AR polyglutamine tract.
In a mouse model of SBMA (AR-97Q), Katsuno et al. (2003) showed that leuprorelin, a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist that prevents testicular testosterone production, reversed both the motor dysfunction and nuclear accumulation of mutant androgen receptors in male transgenic mice. Flutamide, an androgen antagonist that promotes nuclear translocation of androgen receptors, yielded no therapeutic effect. The authors concluded that leuprorelin exhibited a therapeutic effect by preventing mutant androgen receptor translocation and nuclear accumulation.
Minamiyama et al. (2004) studied the therapeutic effects of sodium butyrate (SB), a histone deacetylase (see HDAC1; 601241) inhibitor, in a transgenic mouse model of SBMA. Oral administration of SB ameliorated neurologic phenotypes and increased acetylation of nuclear histone in neural tissues. These therapeutic effects, however, were seen only within a narrow range of SB dosage. The authors suggested that SB may be a possible therapeutic agent for SBMA and other polyQ diseases.
In cultured rat cells transfected with AR-112Q, Yang et al. (2007) found that treatment with ASC-J9, a synthetic analog of curcumin, disrupted the interaction between AR-112Q and its coregulator and also increased cell survival by decreasing AR-polyQ aggregation and increasing AR-polyQ degradation. Intraperitoneal injection of ASC-J9 into AR-97Q mice resulted in improved disease symptoms and a decrease in muscular atrophy. Treated mice retained normal sexual function and fertility.
In a transgenic mouse model of SBMA, Tokui et al. (2009) showed that ubiquitin-proteasomal function was well preserved and was even increased during advanced stages when the mice developed severe phenotypes. Oral administration of the Hsp90 (140571) inhibitor 17-(dimethylaminoethylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-DMAG) markedly ameliorated motor impairments in SBMA mice without detectable toxicity and reduced amounts of monomeric and nuclear-accumulated mutant AR. Mutant AR was preferentially degraded in the presence of 17-DMAG in both SBMA cell and mouse models when compared with wildtype AR, and 17-DMAG also significantly induced Hsp70 (see 140550) and Hsp40 (see 602837). Tokui et al. (2009) concluded that 17-DMAG would exert a therapeutic effect on SBMA via preserved proteasome function.
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