疾患詳細

疾患詳細



(左) 軽症 MPS II (右) 重症 MPS II (Copyright Oxford University Press)

#309900
Mucopolysaccharidosis II (MPS2)
(MPS II)
(Hunter syndrome)
(Iduronate 2-sulfatase deficiency)
(IDS deficiency)
(Sulfoizuronate sulfatase deficiency)
(SIDS deficiency)

ムコ多糖症 II
(Hunter 症候群)
(イズロン酸 2スルファターゼ欠損症)
(IDS 欠損症)
(スルフォイズロン酸スルファターゼ 欠損症)
指定難病19 ライソゾーム病
小児慢性特定疾病 代76 ムコ多糖症Ⅱ型

遺伝形式:X連鎖劣性
責任遺伝子:*300823 Iduronate sulfatase (IDS)

(症状)
【一般】生後1-2年の正常なまたは過剰な成長 → 低身長(成人 IIB: 120 - 140 cm; IIA: 105 - 115 cm)
 反復性中耳炎
 粘液性鼻汁
 うっ血性心不全
 閉塞性睡眠時無呼吸
 喘息
 *肝脾腫
 下痢
 腸偽閉塞
 *最重度の精神遅滞となる神経変性 (IIB では知能正常), 言語欠損
 けいれん
 うるさい呼吸 (乳児期)
 便秘
 目立つ腹部
【神経】嗄声
 不穏, 多動, 破壊性行動
 ミオパチー, 硬直性歩行
【頭】舟状頭
 大頭, 水頭症
【顔】*粗い顔貌
 分厚い口唇
【眼】*角膜混濁なし
 乳頭浮腫
 非典型的色素性網膜炎
 眼瞼下垂
 視力障害, (網膜上膜)
【鼻】大きな鼻, 分厚い鼻孔, 平坦な鼻梁
【口】巨舌
 歯萠出遅延
 歯間解離
【耳】進行性難聴 (混合性, 伝音性, 感音性)
【頸部】短頸
【胸郭】気管気管支軟化症
 軽度の漏斗胸, 幅広い胸
【心】弁膜症
 虚血性心疾患
【体幹】*臍および鼠径ヘルニア, 短い体幹
【四肢】*進行性関節拘縮
 鷲手
 凹足, 大腿骨頭の早期骨関節炎
 変性股関節病
【X線】多発性異骨症
 後弯, 腰椎のくちばし状突出
 頸髄圧迫
 真っ直ぐな脊椎, 最小の脊椎変化
 トルコ鞍拡大, J 型トルコ鞍
 幅広い骨幹
 へら状肋骨
 頭蓋底陥入, (蜂の巣様)
【毛髪】多毛
【皮膚】*皮膚結節 (腕, 後部胸) (敷石状の皮膚)
 *皮膚肥厚
【検査】*ムコ多糖症 (デルマタン硫酸尿, 硫酸ヘパラン尿)
 Iduronate sulfatase 欠損 (線維芽細胞/羊水細胞/白血球)
 培養線維芽細胞での Hunter 因子による是正
 白血球および線維芽細胞の多染性
 リソソーム封入体
【その他】IIA 型では2-4歳発症
 2つの型があs: IIA (重症)とIIB (軽症)
 IIA 型は15歳以前に死亡
 IIB 型は20-60歳まで生存
 出生前診断が可能

(要約) ムコ多糖症 II 型
(Hunter 症候群, I2S 欠乏症, Iduronate 2-Sulfatase 欠乏症, MPS II)
●ムコ多糖症 II 型 (MPS II; Hunter 症候群) は, X連鎖性多臓器疾患で, glycosaminoglycans (GAG) 蓄積が特徴である
 患者の大多数は男性である
 まれに保因者女性が症状をもつ
 発症年齢, 重症度および進行率は有意に変化する
・重症例では, 中枢神経病変 (主に進行性認知悪化), 進行性気道障害, 心疾患 (通常10歳未満または10歳代で死亡する)がみられる
 軽症例では, 中枢神経病変はない (または最小)が, 他の臓器は重症例と同じかもしれない
 →正常知能をもち早期成人への生存が多い
・両型での他の所見:低身長, 大頭+/-交通性水頭症, 巨舌, 粗い声, 伝音および感音難聴, 肝腫+/-脾腫, 多発性異骨症と関節拘縮 (側頭下顎関節を含む), 脊椎狭窄および手根管症候群
●診断:尿中 GAGs と骨格検査でMPSを疑う
 MPS II では, 白血球, 線維芽細胞または血漿でのiduronate sulfatase (I2S) 活性の欠乏が診断に必要である
 →少なくとも他の1つのsulfatase活性が正常という条件で
 GAG 検査結果に合致しない場合は, IDS 遺伝子検査を行う
●酵素置換療法 (ERT): idursulfase (Elaprase®) →軽症例でのみの使用経験なので重症例 (5歳未満) では効果不明である
 Elaprase® はBBBを通過しないので, 中枢神経病変には効果なしと予測される
 Elaprase (合成 Idursulfase) 2006年に紹介 ('Shire Human Genetic Therapies Ltd')
 → $US 300,000 /患者/年
●骨髄移植;効果は不完全 (知能に対して)
●遺伝:X連鎖性
●臨床診断:18か月~4歳の低身長, 肝脾腫, 関節拘縮および粗な顔貌をもつ男児で疑うことが多い
 中耳炎/副鼻腔炎, 臍ヘルニアなどが多くみられる
 多発性異骨症は早期年齢ではみられず, MPS II に特異的ではない
●検査
・尿中グリコサミノグリカン:dermatan sulfate と heparan sulfate の増加 (プロフィールは MPS I に類似する)
 最近は electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometryの使用が推奨
●Iduronate 2-sulfatase (I2S) 酵素活性:検出しない→確定診断に必要
●DS 遺伝子検査:変異 (91%), 欠失 (9%)
●心病変
 心弁疾患 (57%), 心筋症 (8%), 頻脈 (7%), 高血圧 (6%), 府税脈およびうっ血性心不全 (4%), 肝周囲血管病 (2%)
●頻度:1:100,000 〜 1:170,000 出生男児
全世界で約2,000人 (米国500人, カナダ30人, NZ 1人, アイルランド6人, サウジアラビア1人)
●Charles A. Hunter (1873-1955) が1917年に最初に記載した
 →スコットランド生まれで, カナダに移住し, Winnipeg (Manitoba) で開業した
●デルマタン硫酸とヘパラン硫酸の分解の最初の段階で I2S が必要である

<代76 ムコ多糖症Ⅱ型>
概要・定義
グリコサミノグリカンのデルマタン硫酸(DS)とヘパラン硫酸(HS)の分解に必要なライソゾーム酵素であるIduronate-2-sulfatase の先天的欠損により発症するX連鎖劣性遺伝性疾患である。
疫学
発症頻度は, 約5万人にひとりとされている。日本では, 約200症例が報告されている。
病因
① 重症型:乳幼児期から発語の遅れなどの中枢神経症状に気づかれて来院する場合が多く, 6~7歳をピークに発達の退行がはじまり, 徐々に進行してゆく。成長障害, 骨関節症状, 呼吸器症状なども進行する。従来は10歳代の死亡例が多かったが, 酵素補充療法, 造血幹細胞移植, 対症療法の進歩などにより, 生命予後は改善している。
② 軽症型:幼児期の関節拘縮が初発症状である場合が多く, 知的には正常に発達するが, 成長障害, 骨関節症状, 弁膜症, 視力・聴力低下などの症状は徐々に進行して行く。やはり酵素補充療法などの進歩により, 身体機能が維持され, QOL や生命予後は改善している。
③ 中間型:重症型と軽症型の間には様々な程度の症状を有する, いわゆる中間型の患者が存在する。
症状
Hurler病と共通するムコ多糖症特有の症状・経過を示すが, 全般的にHurler病より症状・所見は軽く, 角膜混濁は原則としてみられない。
<乳児期> 広範な蒙古斑・異所性蒙古斑, 反復性の中耳炎, 臍・鼠径ヘルニアが認められ, 乳児期後半には身長, 体重, 頭囲が+2SDを越える例が多い。軽微な脊椎後弯, 腰椎椎体の卵円化を認める例もある。<幼児期> 幼児期は過成長傾向を示す(3歳児Hunter病24例の平均身長98.0 cm, 体重 20.1 kg)。特徴的顔貌(頭囲拡大, 側頭・前頭の膨隆, 鞍鼻, 大きく硬い鼻翼, 厚い口唇, 歯肉肥厚, 歯列不整, 厚く硬い耳介), 巨舌, アデノイド肥大, 騒音呼吸, 多毛, 粗な皮膚を呈する。畝状の皮膚肥厚は本症に特徴的である。軽症型は精神運動発達は正常であるが, 重症型は運動・発語の遅れ, 行動異常を認める。呼吸器感染・中耳炎を反復し, 伝音性難聴をきたす。手指拘縮(鷲手), 脊椎後弯, 股・膝・肘・肩関節の拘縮が認められるようになる。肝腫大による腹部膨隆, 僧帽弁・大動脈弁閉鎖不全も出現する。<学童~思春期> 成長は学童期以降鈍化し, 小学校高学年でほぼ停止する。最終身長は110~130 cmであるが, 168 cmの症例もある。知的発達は軽症型ではほぼ正常であるが, QOLの低下で学業・就労が困難な例もある。重症型では6~7歳をピークに退行を認める例が多く, 思春期には呼吸障害, 嚥下障害などが進行し, 死亡例がある。<成人期> 重症型では脳障害が進行し死亡する例が多い。軽症型では知能は保たれているが, 弁膜症, 気道狭窄, 難聴, 視力障害(網膜色素変性), 関節拘縮などが進行してQOLが低下する。夜間BiPAPなどの補助呼吸が必要になる例もある。生命予後は軽症型でも大きな差がある
診断
ムコ多糖の過剰蓄積は, 尿中ムコ多糖の定量で判定する。尿中ムコ多糖の分画から, 病型をある程度予測できるが, 最終的には, 血液あるいは培養皮膚線維芽細胞などで酵素活性の低下を証明し確定診断とする。遺伝子診断は, 診断を確定するのに必須ではないが重症度の予後判定や家族内の保因者診断や発端者の同胞の出生前診断には有用である。
① 画像検査:頭蓋骨肥厚, トルコ鞍拡大, 腰椎卵円化, オール状肋骨, 砲弾様指骨, 大腿骨頭異形成などを認める。頭部MRIでは脳室拡大, 血管周囲腔の空泡状変化が認められる。
② 尿中ウロン酸(GAG):DSとHSが多量に排泄される。排泄量は成長とともに減少する。
③ I2S活性:白血球, 培養線維芽細胞などで活性低下が認められる。残存活性で重症度を区別することは困難である。
④ IDS遺伝子:本症の遺伝子変異は極めて多様である。隣接するpseudogeneとの相同組換えによって相互の逆位を生じる変異は多くの人種に比較的高頻度に見いだされる。
診断方法
(1) 下記の症状・臨床検査からムコ多糖症を疑う。
症状:特有の顔貌, 関節拘縮, 関節変形, 骨の変形, 精神運動発達障害, 神経学的退行, 角膜混濁, 難聴, 繰り返す滲出性中耳炎, アデノイド, 扁桃肥大, 臍ヘルニア, そけいヘルニア, 肝脾腫大, 閉塞性呼吸障害, 騒音性呼吸, 異所性の蒙古斑など。それぞれの症状は, 治療を行わないと加齢に伴い進行する。
臨床検査:全身骨X線で多発性の骨形態変化を認める。その他, 尿中ウロン酸排泄量の上昇があり, 病型により, デルマタン硫酸, ヘパラン硫酸, ケラタン硫酸などの過剰排泄を認める。

(2) 確定診断は酵素診断によりなされる。白血球, 培養線維芽細胞などの検体から, 以下の酵素の活性低下を示すことにより, 診断が確定する。なお, 遺伝子診断は, 補助的検査であり, 原則として, 確定診断には用いない。
ムコ多糖症I型: α-L-iduronidase
ムコ多糖症II型: Iduronate sulfarase
ムコ多糖症III型:  heparan N-sylfatase
 α-N-acetylglucosaminidase
 acetylCoA:α-glucosaminide acetyltransferase
 N-acetylglucosamine 6-sulfatase
ムコ多糖症IV型: N-acetylgalactosamine 6-sulfatase欠損症
 β-galactosidase欠損症
ムコ多糖症VI型: N-Acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfatase(別名arylsulfatase B)
ムコ多糖症VII型: β-Glucuronidase
※  なお, 2014年2月現在, 検査センターエスアールエルで, 尿中ウロン酸, ムコ多糖分画および血液検体を用いたムコ多糖症 I型, II型, III型, IV型, VI型, VII型の酵素診断が可能である。

当該事業における対象基準
全A  疾患名に該当する場合

治療
対症療法と原因治療がある。後者としては, 酵素補充療法と造血細胞移植がある。
予後
病初期に発見され, 早期に治療を開始した症例では比較的予後がいい。
成人期以降
酵素補充療法や造血細胞移植を行った症例でも, 病気の進行を完全に止めることはできない。

(オリジナル) Hunter (1917)
(頻度) 1/65,000 - 1/132,000 出生
(責任遺伝子) *300823 Iduronate sulfatase (IDS)
.0001 Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (309900) [IDS, ARG443TER [dbSNP:rs199422227] (Sukegawa et al. 1992; Froissart et al. 1993)
.0002 Mucopolysaccharidosis type II [IDS, SER333LEU [dbSNP:rs104894853] (Flomen et al. 1992)
.0003 Mucopolysaccharidosis type II [IDS, TRP502SER [dbSNP:rs199422228] (Flomen et al. 1992)
.0004 Mucopolysaccharidosis type II [IDS, PRO160ARG [dbSNP:rs104894856] (Flomen et al. 1992)
.0005 Mucopolysaccharidosis type II [IDS, ARG172TER [dbSNP:rs104894860] (Flomen et al. 1992)
.0006 Mucopolysaccharidosis type II [IDS, 60-BP DEL, NT1244 [dbSNP:rs113993948] (Flomen et al. 1992)
.0007 Mucopolysaccharidosis type II [IDS, DEL] (Beck et al. 1992)
.0008 Mucopolysaccharidosis type II [IDS, CYS422GLY [dbSNP:rs199422229] (Bunge etal. 1992)
.0009 Mucopolysaccharidosis type II [IDS, LYS135ARG [dbSNP:rs104894861] (Bunge et al.1992)
.0010 Mucopolysaccharidosis type II [IDS, TRP475TER [dbSNP:rs199422230] (Bunge et al. 1992)
.0011 Mucopolysaccharidosis type II [IDS, 2-BP DEL, CODON 170 [dbSNP:rs483352904] (Bunge etal. 1992)
.0012 Mucopolysaccharidosis type II, mild form [IDS, ARG468TRP [dbSNP:rs199422231] (Crotty et al.1992)
.0013 Mucopolysaccharidosis type II, severe form [IDS, ARG468GLN [dbSNP:rs113993946] (Whitley etal. 1993; Sukegawa et al. 1997)
.0014 Mucopolysaccharidosis type II, mild form [IDS, 78-BP INS] (Rathmann et al. 1996)
.0015 Mucopolysaccharidosis type II, severe form [IDS, ARG468LEU [dbSNP:rs113993946] (Isogai et al. 1998)
.0016 Mucopolysaccharidosis type II [IDS, 3-BP DEL, 473TCC [dbSNP:rs483352905] (Bonuccelli et al. (2001)
.0017 Mucopolysaccharidosis type II [IDS, GLY489ALA, MET488ILE [dbSNP:rs104894863] [dbSNP:rs104894862] (Ricci et al. 2003)

*IDS: Iduronate sulfatase (550 amino acids)
・Iduronate-2-sulfatase は heparan sulfate と dermatan sulfate リソソーム分解に必要である

(メモ) chondroitin sulfate (コンドロイチン硫酸)
 代表的な硫酸化ムコ多糖《グリコサミノグリカン》A,B,Cの3種類がある. 軟骨,皮膚に分布する

(ノート)
●(#) は,ムコ多糖症 II 型 (Hunter 症候群)は,Xq28 の iduronate 2-sulfatase (IDS; 300823) をコードする遺伝子が原因なため

●ムコ多糖症 II 型は,リソソーム酵素の iduronate sulfatase 欠乏が原因もまれなX連鎖劣性疾患で,ほぼ全ての細胞型,組織および器官への glycosaminoglucans の進行性蓄積を生じる
 MPS II の患者は,尿に大量の chondroitin sulfate B (dermatan sulfate) および heparitin sulfate (heparan sulfate) を排泄する (McKusick, 1972; Wraith et al., 2008).

臨床症状
●MPS II は,多臓器疾患である
 臨床症状には,重度の気道閉塞,骨格変形,心筋症,および大多数の患者で,神経学的機能低下がみられる
 死亡は通常は10歳代であるが,一部もより軽症の患者は40〜50歳代まで生存する (Wraith et al., 2008).

●McKusick (1972) は臨床的に区別できる2つの型の MPS II を認めた
 重症型 (McKusick 命名ではMPS IIA) は, 進行性精神遅滞と身体障害をもち, 大多数が15歳以前に死亡する
 軽症型 (MPS IIB) は, 成人まで生存し, 子供をつくったことが知られている (DiFerrante and Nichols, 1972)
  知能はあるにしても最小障害である
 おそらく Hunter 症候群の2つ以上のアレル型があり, 2つの型の区別は家系内でもはっきりしないことが多い

●Wraith et al. (2008) は,MPS II は2つの極端間 (重症と減弱)の連続とみなすべきだと述べた
 彼らは,より重症患者の臨床経過は比較的予測できるが,臨床表現型とより減弱型の進行には相当な多様性があると述べた

●Danes and Bearn (1965) は, 本疾患患者の線維芽細胞は, 異染性細胞質封入体を示すことを発見した
 ヘテロ接合体の線維芽細胞の約半数がそのような封入体をもつ

●Sapadin and Friedman (1998) は, Hunter 症候群の4.5歳のアフリカ系米国人男児で高度のモンゴル斑に気付いた
 これらの斑は, 出生時に臀部と腰仙部にあった
 他の斑は, 背部全体の脊椎に沿った領域に出現しつづけ, 小さな病変が前部体幹に生じた
 'Pebbly' 皮膚は, 近位腕に出現し, すぐその後, 肩甲骨と上腿にみえるようになり, その後胸筋に出現した
 他の特徴は, Hunter 症候群に典型的で, 酵素アッセーにより確認された

●Ochiai et al. (2003) は, Hunter 症候群の日本人乳児7例で, 造血幹細胞移植 (HSCT) の前後で, モンゴル斑の出現を調べた
 HSCT前では, 全例が広汎なモンゴル斑を出生時にもっており, HSCT後に改善の兆候は示さなかった
 電顕は, 色素をもつ皮膚メラニン細胞が, IV期に多くのフリーメラノソームをもつことを示した
 これらは, 細胞外鞘により囲まれ, 弾性線維により球状となっていた
 Ochiai et al. (2003) の結果は, 広範なモンゴル斑と Hunter 症候群との強い臨床的相関を示し, 電顕所見は, 高色素は長期に持続する症状であることを示唆した
 Ochiai et al. (2003) は, 広範なモンゴル斑の認知は, 軽症型 Hunter 症候群患者の早期診断に必須であると結論した

Huang et al. (2015) described chorioretinopathy in 5 patients with Hunter syndrome. In 2 patients (aged 9 and 20 years) with multifocal depigmented retinopathy, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) showed focal choroidal thinning in the pigmentary retinopathy areas. A mild, fuzzy, and thickened external limiting membrane (ELM), widening of the distance between the retinal pigment epithelium and ellipsoid zone at the fovea, and disruption of the ellipsoid zone at the extrafoveal area were also noted. In an 18-year-old man with a history of retinoschisis, SD-OCT showed mild retinal folds, a fuzzy and thickened ELM at the fovea, and some small cystic changes. In 2 patients (aged 10 and 14 years) with retinopathy resembling retinitis pigmentosa, SD-OCT showed some cytic spaces, a fuzzy ELM, disrupted ellipsoid zone, and diffuse loss of choriocapillaris.

Attenuated Mucopolysaccharidosis Type II (MPS IIB)
●Hobolth and Pedersen (1978) は, 軽症の Hunter 症候群の6例をもつ1家系を記載した
 2例では65歳と87歳まで生存し, 患者男性3例の既存をもった

●Tsuzaki et al. (1987)は, 異常に軽症型の Hunter 症候群1例を記載した
 14歳時, 彼らの患者は正常な成長と発達をもった
 彼は, X線学的に軽度の異骨症, 粗な顔貌, 肘および肩関節の屈曲拘縮, および中等度の肝脾腫をもっていた
 8歳時, 彼は大動脈逆流による雑音をもち, 12歳時アンギオグラフィーは4度大動脈逆流を示した
 母は, 健康な保因者であった
●Ballenger et al. (1980) は, 24歳時肥厚した髄膜が頸髄に突き当たったことによる痙性四肢麻痺を記載した
 気管狭窄は気管切開を必要とした

Yund et al. (2015) studied the association of brain volumes and somatic disease burden with neuropsychologic outcomes, including measures of intelligence, memory, and attention in 20 patients with attenuated MPS II with a mean age of 15.8 years. MRI volumes were compared to 55 normal controls. IQ and memory were average, but measures of attention were 1 SD below the average range. Corpus callosum volumes were significantly different from age-matched controls, differing by 22%. Normal age-related volume increases in white matter were not seen in MPS II patients as they were in controls. Somatic disease burden and white matter and corpus callosum volumes were significantly associated with attention deficits. Neither age at evaluation nor age at starting treatment predicted attention outcomes.

臨床的多様性
● IDS 座の完全欠損をもつ患者は,非典型的表現型をもつことが多い
 →眼瞼下垂,閉塞性睡眠時無呼吸およびけいれん (Wraith et al., 1991; Froissart et al., 1993)
●Steen-Bondeson et al. (1992) とその他は,Hunter 症候群患者でのこれらの非典型的症状のいくつかは,IDS 領域の他の遺伝子の欠失によるかもしれないと示唆した

遺伝
●Hunter 症候群はX連鎖劣性疾患である (McKusick, 1972)
 本疾患は男性のみにみられると期待されるが,数例の女性が報告されている

Broadhead et al. (1986) described a 2.5-year-old girl with typical full expression of MPS II. Chromosome studies showed partial deletion of the long arm of one X chromosome; band Xq25 was thought to be missing. Studies using BrdU indicated that the deleted X chromosome was consistently late replicating and, as a result, the Hunter gene presumed to be present on the other X chromosome was fully expressed. There were no other cases of Hunter syndrome known in the family; however, the mother had a partial deficiency (43%) of serum iduronate-2-sulfate sulfatase. The father's serum enzyme activity was in the control range. Hence, caution must obviously be exercised in interpreting the findings of X/autosome translocations as indication of an X-linked trait at the site of the breakpoint on the X chromosome, when there is no way to identify carrier status in the mother. In such instances, the full expression of the disorder in a female may merely be the result of nonrandom inactivation of the abnormal X chromosome uncovering the mutant gene on the other X chromosome.

Clarke et al. (1990) described clinically and biochemically typical Hunter syndrome in a karyotypically normal girl. Cross-correction with fibroblasts of a classic male patient did not occur. In a second report, Clarke et al. (1990) presented evidence they interpreted as indicating that in this patient the maternal X chromosome was selectively inactivated, whereas presumably the paternal X chromosome carried a mutation for this disorder. The critical evidence was provided by somatic cell hybrid clones produced by fusion of the patient's fibroblasts with HPRT-negative hamster fibroblasts and grown in HAT-ouabain medium to select for hybrids containing at least one active human X chromosome. Clarke et al. (1991) presented further evidence in support of this hypothesis.

Clarke et al. (1992) reported molecular characterization of the mutation associated with marked unbalanced expression of the mutant X chromosome in the karyotypically normal girl with Hunter syndrome reported by Clarke et al. (1990, 1991). Southern analysis of DNA extracted from somatic cell hybrids containing only the mutant X chromosome showed deletion of several Xq27.3-q28 loci including FRAXA (309550) and the 3-prime end of the IDS gene. Three flanking loci, including DXS52, were intact. On the basis of these results, Clarke et al. (1992)concluded that the mutation was a simple deletion extending a maximum of 3-5 cM to the centromeric side of the IDS gene. Their studies indicated that the telomeric terminus of the deletion was located near the middle of the coding sequence of the gene.

Winchester et al. (1992) reported the occurrence of Hunter syndrome in a karyotypically normal girl who was 1 of identical twins. Molecular studies showed nonrandom X inactivation in both her fibroblasts and her lymphocytes, while her normal twin showed equal usage of the 2 X chromosomes. In view of previous reports of 7 pairs of identical female twins in which 1 had Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Winchester et al. (1992) suggested that twinning may be strongly associated with nonrandom X inactivation. In some cases of twins discordant for DMD, symmetric nonrandom X inactivation was found with each twin showing a nonrandom pattern but in opposite directions. In at least one case (Lupski et al., 1991), however, 1 girl showed an apparently random pattern and the affected girl a nonrandom pattern. The patient with Hunter syndrome reported by Winchester et al. (1992) was of the latter type. Goldenfum et al. (1996) demonstrated that both twins reported by Winchester et al. (1992) were heterozygous for a 1-bp deletion of cytosine at position 123 of their cDNA. The asymptomatic cotwin showed random X inactivation.

In analyzing 5 samples of families with MPS II, with a total of 158 cases, Machill et al. (1991) found that the mutant allele segregated in agreement with mendelian expectations for an X-linked recessive disorder, but the proportion of sporadic cases was significantly lower than expected under mutation-selection equilibrium. Heterogeneity among the samples was evident but was caused entirely by a sample of Ashkenazi families, in which the segregation pattern had previously been interpreted as suggesting prenatal selection in favor of the pathologic allele. In their analysis of the 5 samples by a maximum likelihood approach, Machill et al. (1991) found no suggestion of segregation distortion. The apparent deficiency of sporadic cases might be due to ascertainment bias.

In Ashkenazi Jews in Israel, Zlotogora et al. (1985) found no new mutations among the mothers of probands. Furthermore, they found a striking deviation in segregation of the Hunter and normal alleles in heterozygous females, with favoring of the former. In non-Ashkenazi populations, the rate of new mutations and the segregation ratio have been close to those expected (Archer et al., 1983; Tonnesen, 1984). Zlotogora et al. (1991) reported that 10 of the 12 Jewish families with Hunter syndrome in Israel were of Ashkenazi or Moroccan origin. They provided further evidence that in these families there is a paucity of new mutations and they confirmed the significant deviation of the segregation ratio between the Hunter gene and the normal allele among the offspring of heterozygous mothers and among the sibs of affected children. Selection in favor of the X chromosome carrying the Hunter allele was suggested. It has apparently not been observed in other ethnic groups. The explanation may lie in another closely linked gene such that the phenomenon is particular to the Jewish population. Another possibility is that the mutation itself gives an advantage to that chromosome.

Froissart et al. (1997) found evidence of germline and somatic mosaicism in the mother of a boy with an arg443-to-ter mutation (300823.0001). The mutation was found in a varying proportion of tissues tested (7% in leukocytes, lymphocytes and lymphoblastoid cells, and 22% in fibroblasts). The proband's sister carried the 'at risk' allele (as determined by haplotype analysis), but not the mutation. In sporadic cases of X-linked diseases, germline mosaicism of the proband's mother is difficult to exclude and should be considered in genetic counseling.

Sukegawa et al. (1998) reported a brother/sister pair with Hunter syndrome. Both had normal karyotypes. The sister was heterozygous for the R468L mutation (300823.0015) in genomic DNA, but homozygous for the allele in fibroblasts and lymphoblasts, resulting in relatively severe manifestations of the disease. Analysis of methylation patterns of the androgen receptor gene showed skewed X-chromosome inactivation of the paternal allele.

Mapping
Berg et al. (1968) concluded that the Hunter locus and the Xm locus (314900) are within measurable distance of each other on Xq28, the best estimate of the recombination fraction being 0.09.

Mossman et al. (1983) described a 3-year-old girl with typical Hunter syndrome. She had an apparently balanced reciprocal translocation between chromosomes X and 5 with the break in the former being between q26 and q27. The parents' karyotypes were normal. Pedigree analysis and normal enzyme levels in the mother's fibroblasts, serum, and hair roots indicated that the child had a new mutation. Location of the Hunter gene in the q26-q27 region and disruption of this gene in the origination of the translocation in this girl was proposed. The principle here is the same as that used to assign regionally the DMD locus (300377) and several others; the translocation chromosome is presumably the active one. Roberts et al. (1987, 1988, 1989) reexamined the case of Mossman et al. (1983) cytogenetically and concluded that the breakpoint was in Xq28 rather than being more proximal, as previously suggested. This finding is more in keeping with the linkage studies with DNA markers, which suggest location of the locus at Xq28. Furthermore, replication studies indicated that the normal X in this patient was preferentially inactivated.

Chase et al. (1986) concluded that the Hunter locus is distal to the factor IX locus (300746) inasmuch as the maximum lod score for the linkage of these loci was 0.424 at theta = 0.25, whereas that for the linkage of the Hunter syndrome and DX13 was 3.01 at theta = 0.1. DX13 maps to Xq28. From studies with DNA probes, Upadhyaya et al. (1985, 1986) suggested that the Hunter locus may be close to that for the fragile site at Xq27.

Le Guern et al. (1990) did a family linkage study using 4 polymorphic markers from the Xq27-q28 region. A maximum lod score of 6.57 at theta = 0.0 was obtained with DXS304. Furthermore, they showed, consistent with the finding of others, that the breakpoint of the X;5 translocation described by Mossman et al. (1983) is distal to DXS98 and proximal to DXS304. Thomas et al. (1989) extended studies of the X;5 translocation by study of cell hybrids containing the derivative X as their only human X chromosome material. By study of DNA markers and of a hybrid clone that apparently had undergone a secondary DNA rearrangement, they concluded that the 'IDS and FRAXA are probably located in the same subregion around Xq27.3.'

Couillin et al. (1990) described a method for isolating the 2 X;5 translocated derivative chromosomes in separate rodent-human cell hybrids. The method was based mainly on immunofluorescent screening using MIC2 (313470) and MIC5 (308840) antigenic markers. The MIC5 gene was found to be between IDS and G6PD (305900). Couillin et al. (1990) concluded that the fragile X site is proximal to IDS. Wilson et al. (1991) used an IDS cDNA clone to localize the gene to Xq28, distal to the fragile X site. The cDNA clone was also shown to span the X chromosome breakpoint in a female Hunter syndrome patient with an X;autosome translocation (Suthers et al., 1989).

Diagnosis
Tonnesen et al. (1983) found that cross-correction between the 2 cell populations of the Hunter syndrome heterozygote is inhibited by fructose 1-phosphate or mannose 6-phosphate. Intercellular uptake of lysosomal enzymes in cultured fibroblasts is prevented by addition of either mannose-6-phosphate or fructose-1-phosphate to the culture medium. They studied 25 obligatory carriers to determine the usefulness of fructose 1-phosphate as a means of carrier detection. In 23 carriers, (35)S-sulfate incorporation was significantly increased. In 1 carrier, incorporation was already increased before addition of fructose and in 1 carrier it was normal both before and after fructose. Tonnesen (1984) identified Hunter carriers by studying (35)S-sulfate accumulation in the presence and absence of fructose-1-phosphate. Petruschka et al. (1983) tested the Tonnesen technique by studying various mixtures of normal and Hunter cells in culture as well as obligatory carriers. They concluded that the method 'seems to be suitable for carrier detection.' Archer et al. (1983) concluded that carrier detection was best when hair-root analysis and serum enzyme levels were taken together. Daniele and Di Natale (1987) demonstrated crossreacting material in the serum and fibroblasts of Hunter patients. Zlotogora and Bach (1986) proposed that prenatal diagnosis of Hunter syndrome may be possible by measurement of iduronate sulfatase in the mother's serum. The level of IDS consistently rises in the serum of pregnant women. In pregnancies with Hunter-affected male fetuses, serum enzyme levels did not change. The normal increase occurs usually by the sixth to twelfth week.

Bakker et al. (1991) found that the IDS cDNA probe was partially deleted in 3 of 12 Dutch patients with Hunter syndrome. In 2 of the 3 patients, Southern blots showed the presence of a deletion junction fragment which could be used for highly reliable direct carrier detection in their families. Schroder et al. (1993) used different carrier detection tests, i.e., IDS activity in serum, sulfate incorporation in cultured skin fibroblasts, and RFLP analysis, in 13 unrelated families with 16 patients and 36 females at risk for MPS II. Twenty-nine females were confirmed as carriers, and in 5 women, the heterozygous state was excluded. The use of the intragenic IDS cDNA probes and flanking probes provided accuracy in carrier detection that was equal to or better than biochemical methods. Structural alterations were found in the DNA of 2 patients: one showed a major deletion including the whole coding sequence of the IDS gene; an aberrant Southern fragment occurred in the HindIII/pc2S15 blot of the other patient, suggesting a new HindIII restriction site by point mutation in an IDS gene intron.

Ben Simon-Schiff et al. (1993) confirmed the reliability of the serum assay of IDS activity in the identification of heterozygotes; the serum test correctly detected 11 of 12 of the first-degree relatives tested by the serum assay, 6 of 7 carriers, and 5 of 5 noncarriers. The only case with an apparent false negative result in the serum test was thought to represent an instance of germinal mosaicism.

In a family in which there was no surviving affected individual, Timms et al. (1998) described carrier testing using direct dye primer sequencing of PCR products to identify mixed bases in an obligate carrier. Two mixed bases were observed within exon 8 of the IDS gene. These resulted in a missense mutation and a nonsense mutation. Four additional female family members were screened for the same mutations, and none were found in any of these additional subjects, including in 1 who had been identified previously as a carrier by skin biopsy. Timms et al. (1998) concluded that this approach can be used to provide unambiguous information about a subject's carrier status, even in families in which the disorder is mild.

As a means of molecular diagnosis, Jonsson et al. (1995) developed a rapid method to sequence the entire iduronate 2-sulfatase coding region: PCR amplicons representing the IDS cDNA were sequenced with an automatic machine, and output was analyzed by computer-assisted interpretation of tracings. Mutations were found in 10 of 11 patients studied. Unique missense mutations were identified in 5 patients.

Clinical Management
Braun et al. (1993) tested in vitro the correction of the enzyme defect in the Hunter syndrome, using an amphotropic retroviral vector containing the human IDS coding sequence. Lymphoblastoid cell lines from patients with Hunter syndrome were transduced with the vector and expressed high levels of IDS enzyme activity, 10- to 70-fold higher than normal human peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cell lines. The transduced cells failed to show accumulation of (35)SO4 into glycosaminoglycan, indicating that recombinant IDS enzyme participated in glycosaminoglycan metabolism.

Vellodi et al. (1999) reported the results of bone marrow transplantation performed in 10 patients with Hunter disease. The donor was an HLA-identical sib in 2 cases, an HLA-nonidentical relative in 6 cases, and a volunteer unrelated donor in 1 case. Details were not available in the last case. Only 3 patients had survived for more than 7 years post bone marrow transplant; of those, 1 died 11 years after bone marrow transplant. The authors suggested that this high mortality probably resulted from poor donor selection. In 2 who had survived long-term, there had been a steady progression of physical disability and mental handicap. One patient had maintained normal intellectual development, with only mild physical disability.

Wang et al. (2009) reported 2 unrelated boys with MPS II diagnosed at ages 3 years 9 months and 4 years 7 months, respectively. One had moderate mental retardation and aggressive behavior, whereas the other was cognitively normal without behavioral problems. Both also had white matter abnormalities and ventricular dilatation on brain MRI, which did not correlate with cognitive function. Treatment with intravenous enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) resulted in no change in brain MRI findings in either patient, indicating lack of progression. The findings suggested that ERT may halt or possibly improve brain MRI abnormalities in patients with MPS, even though ERT had previously been thought not to cross into the brain. Wang et al. (2009) offered some explanations, including lessening of somatic GAG accumulation, repair of damaged brain endothelium, and possibly small amounts of enzyme being able to permeate the brain.

Wraith et al. (2008) and Muenzer et al. (2009) reviewed the clinical management of patients with MPS II.

Wang et al. (2011) described the ACMG standards and guidelines for the diagnostic confirmation and management of presymptomatic individuals with lysosomal storage diseases.

Wikman-Jorgensen et al. (2020) performed a literature review to assess the safety and efficacy of ERT for the treatment of Hunter syndrome. The review included 42 articles, including 8 clinical trials, 21 observational studies, 12 clinical case reports, and 1 case-control study. All of the articles reported reduced urinary GAG content with ERT, and a dose response gradient was seen in the 3 studies in which different does were evaluated. In 12 studies that evaluated the effect of ERT on distance walked on the 6 minute walk test, 8 reported an improvement in children and adults. Other findings with ERT included reduced liver and spleen size in 18 of 18 studies in which this outcome was reported, increased forced viral capacity on pulmonary function testing, reduction in the left ventricular mass index, and reduction in mortality. In all of the studies, improved quality of life with ERT was reported; however, a metaanalysis of the results was not possible due to the heterogeneous methodology across the studies. A clear effect of ERT was not observed on cognitive deterioration or growth.

Population Genetics
Schaap and Bach (1980) reported a frequency of approximately 1 in 34,000 males born in Israel between 1967 and 1975.

In a questionnaire study in the United Kingdom, Young and Harper (1982) estimated the frequency of the Hunter syndrome as about 1 in 132,000 male births. The severe form was 3.38 times more frequent than the mild form. No increased incidence in Jews was noted.

In British Columbia, 6 cases of the Hunter syndrome were born between 1952 and 1986, giving a frequency of 1 in 110,950 live male births (Lowry et al., 1990). Chakravarti and Bale (1983) concluded that the high frequency of Hunter disease in Israeli Jews (Goodman, 1979) is compatible with genetic drift.

Using multiple ascertainment sources, Nelson et al. (2003) estimated the incidence rate for mucopolysaccharidoses in western Australia for the period 1969 to 1996. An incidence of approximately 1 in 320,000 live births (1 in 165,000 male live births) was obtained for Hunter syndrome.

Lin et al. (2009) analyzed the incidence of MPS in Taiwan between 1984 and 2004 and found that the combined birth incidence for all MPS cases was 2.04 per 100,000 live births. MPS II (Hunter syndrome) had the highest calculated birth incidence (1.07 per 100,000 live births), comprising 52% of all MPS cases diagnosed. Although the overall incidence of MPS in Taiwan was consistent with reports from Western populations, Lin et al. (2009) noted that in contrast to reports of a higher incidence of MPS I in most Western populations, their study showed a higher incidence of MPS II in Taiwan.

Khan et al. (2017) analyzed the epidemiology of the mucopolysaccharidoses in Japan and Switzerland and compared them to similar data from other countries. Data for Japan was collected between 1982 and 2009, and 467 cases with MPS were identified. The combined birth prevalence was 1.53 per 100,000 live births. The highest birth prevalence was 0.84 for MPS II, accounting for 55% of all MPS. MPS I (see 607014), III (see 252900), and IV (see 253000) accounted for 15%, 16%, and 10%, respectively. MPS VI (253200) and VII (253220) were more rare and accounted for 1.7% and 1.3%, respectively. A retrospective epidemiologic data collection was performed in Switzerland between 1975 and 2008 (34 years), and 41 living MPS patients were identified. The combined birth prevalence was 1.56 per 100,000 live births. The highest birth prevalence was 0.46 for MPS II, accounting for 29% of all MPS. MPS I, III, and IV accounted for 12%, 24%, and 24%, respectively. As seen in the Japanese population, MPS VI and VII were more rare and accounted for 7.3% and 2.4%, respectively. The high birth prevalence of MPS II in Japan was comparable to that seen in other East Asian countries where this MPS accounted for approximately 50% of all forms of MPS. Birth prevalence was also similar in some European countries (Germany, Northern Ireland, Portugal and the Netherlands) although the prevalence of other forms of MPS was also reported to be higher in these countries.

Molecular Genetics
Wilson et al. (1991) found a deletion or gene rearrangement in 7 of 23 Hunter patients of Australian and British origin. In 2 of 14 unrelated German MPS II patients, structural alteration of the IDS gene was found by Southern analysis using an IDS cDNA clone as a probe. In one of these patients, a severely affected male, no Southern fragments were detected.

In 2 unrelated patients with complete deletion of the IDS gene, Wraith et al. (1991) reported that the phenotype was that of very severe Hunter syndrome. In addition, both had features not commonly seen in MPS II, namely, early onset of seizures in one patient and ptosis in the other.

In 12 patients, Bunge et al. (1992) used single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis for mutation analysis. Missense or nonsense mutations and deletions or insertions of a small number of basepairs were found in most; probably only about 20% of Hunter patients have complete deletion or gross structural alteration of the IDS gene. The broad clinical variability among Hunter patients is apparently a reflection of extensive molecular heterogeneity.

Palmieri et al. (1992) isolated a 1.2-Mb YAC contig spanning the IDS gene. Several putative CpG islands were identified in the region, suggesting the presence of other genes. Southern analysis of DNA from 25 unrelated Italian MPS II patients uncovered 4 with deletions or rearrangements in the IDS gene. DNA from a patient with a translocation breakpoint in the gene permitted orientation of the contig in relation to the centromere.

Steen-Bondeson et al. (1992) investigated the occurrence of rearrangements and deletions of the IDS gene in a Southern analysis of 46 unrelated MPS2 patients of different ethnic origins using a cDNA clone containing the entire IDS gene as a probe. Structural alterations were found in DNA from 9 patients, 2 of whom showed large deletions including all coding sequences of the gene. The distal and proximal breakpoints of these deletions were determined by hybridization of markers flanking the IDS gene. Seven of the observed alterations constituted major rearrangements of the gene. Six of these rearrangements showed similar or identical patterns by Southern analysis, suggestive of a region prone to structural alterations within the IDS gene. Steen-Bondeson et al. (1992) also demonstrated the potential use of the IDS probe for carrier detection in families with a rearranged IDS gene.

Froissart et al. (1993) described 2 patients who appeared to have complete deletion of the IDS gene. It appeared that these patients had a more severe form of Hunter syndrome.

From a study of a total of 26 cases, Bunge et al. (1993) found that about 20% of patients have deletions of the whole IDS gene or other major structural alterations. In about 23% of cases, deletion of 1, 2, or 3 basepairs was found, while the remaining patients, about 57%, carried point mutations predicting amino acid replacement, premature termination of translation, or aberrant splicing.

Hopwood et al. (1993) reviewed mutations in the IDS gene in Hunter syndrome. From the group of 319 patients thus far studied by Southern analysis, 14 had full deletion of the gene and 48 had partial deletion or other gross rearrangements. All patients with full deletions or gross rearrangements had severe clinical presentations. In a total of 32 patients, 29 different 'small' mutations had been characterized: 4 nonsense and 13 missense mutations, 7 different small deletions from 1 to 3 bp, with most leading to a frameshift and premature chain termination, and 5 different splice site mutations also leading to small insertions or deletions in the mRNA. A 60-bp deletion that resulted from the creation of a new donor splice site was observed in 5 unrelated patients with relatively mild clinical phenotypes.

Sukegawa et al. (1995) described 8 new examples of point mutations in the IDS gene in Japanese Hunter syndrome patients exhibiting various degrees of severity.

Bondeson et al. (1995) identified an IDS pseudogene, which they designated IDS2, located within 90 kb telomeric of the IDS gene. They showed that this region is involved in a recombination event with the primary IDS gene in about 13% of patients with the Hunter syndrome. Analysis of the resulting rearrangement at the molecular level showed that these patients had suffered a recombination event that resulted in a disruption of the IDS gene in intron 7 with an inversion of the intervening DNA. All 6 patients with a similar type of rearrangement showed recombination between intron 7 of the IDS gene and sequences close to exon 3 of the IDS2 locus, implying that these regions are hotspots for recombination. Nucleotide sequencing showed that the inversion is caused by recombination between homologous sequences present in the IDS gene and the IDS2 locus. No detectable deletions or insertions were observed as a consequence of the recombination. The IDS2 pseudogene contains sequences that are related to exons 2 and 3 as well as introns 2, 3, and 7 of the IDS gene. An example of a similar inversion caused by homologous recombination is that involving intron 22 of the factor VIII gene (F8; 300841) causing severe hemophilia A (306700). In the case of the F8 gene, the inversions occur almost exclusively in the male germ cells. It has therefore been hypothesized that mispairing leading to inversion is inhibited by pairing of the X chromosomes in the female germ cells. Interestingly, both the F8 gene and the IDS gene are located in Xq28, a distal part of the X chromosome that is generally unpaired in males. Bondeson et al. (1995) provided additional information concerning the IDS2 gene.

Birot et al. (1996) described a patient with Hunter syndrome in whom an exchange between the IDS gene and pseudogene through interchromosomal recombination had apparently caused internal deletion of exons 4, 5, 6, and 7. In the rearranged gene, the junction intron contained pseudogene intron 3- and intron 7-related sequences.

Rathmann et al. (1996) identified IDS mutations in 31 families/patients with MPS II. Twenty mutations were novel and unique and another was novel but was found in 3 unrelated patients. One of the mutations detected was of special interest as it is an A-to-G substitution in an intron far from the coding region that is deleterious because it creates a new 5-prime splice donor site that results in the inclusion of a 78-bp intronic sequence (300823.0014). The authors analyzed a total of 101 point mutations in the coding region and found that they tended to be more frequent in exons 3, 8, and 9. CpG dinucleotides were involved in 47% of the point mutations, of which G:C-to-A:T transitions constituted nearly 80%. Almost all recurrent point mutations involved CpG sites. Analysis of a collection of 50 families studied by this group revealed that mutations occurred more frequently in male meioses; they estimated the male-to-female ratio to be between 3.76 and 6.3.

Froissart et al. (1998) studied 70 unrelated Hunter patients and found a mutation in each. There was striking molecular heterogeneity. Large gene rearrangements were identified in 14 patients. In the 56 other patients, 43 different mutations were identified, and 31 had not previously been described. Since only a few mutations were present in several patients, genotype/phenotype correlations were difficult. The mother was not found to be a carrier in 5 among 44 sporadic cases. Haplotype analysis demonstrated a high frequency of mutations in male meiosis.

Isogai et al. (1998) characterized 25 different small mutations in the IDS gene in a series of 43 Japanese patients with Hunter disease. As in other series, 3 different mutations in codon 468 of exon 9 were found: arg468 to trp (309900.0012), arg468 to gln (309900.0013), arg468 to leu (309900.0015). All 3 mutations were associated with a severe phenotype.

Timms et al. (1998) described a patient with features of moderate to severe Hunter syndrome and a 178-bp deletion upstream of IDS exon 1 spanning a predicted promoter element. Sequencing of all 9 IDS exons failed to show any additional mutations within the coding region or in intron/exon boundaries. The 178-bp deletion was flanked by 2 13-bp direct repeats and potential DNA topoisomerase II recognition sites. These findings suggested to Timms et al. (1998) nonhomologous recombination as a possible mechanism for the deletion. Expression studies detected no IDS transcripts.

In a study of 31 Spanish families with Hunter disease, Gort et al. (1998) found 22 novel small mutations (7 reported previously by the same group) and 4 large deletions or rearrangements. This brought the number of separate IDS mutations that had been reported to that time to nearly 150. Li et al. (1999) provided yet more evidence of the molecular heterogeneity of this condition by identifying 17 mutations in 18 unrelated patients with MPS2. The mutations included 7 missense mutations, 5 small deletions, 2 insertions, 2 splice site mutations, and an intragenic deletion of exons 4, 5, 6, and 7. Nine of the small mutations were novel.

In 36 Russian patients with Hunter syndrome, Karsten et al. (1998) found 25 different mutations, of which 15 were novel. Most of the missense mutations resulted in intermediate or severe phenotypes.

Genotype/Phenotype Correlations
In a review, Muenzer et al. (2009) noted that a paucity of common and recurrent mutations in the IDS gene makes genotype/phenotype correlations difficult. They stated that complete deletions and complex rearrangements of the IDS gene always result in a severe phenotype. Although 3 mutations in codon 468 of exon 9 (300823.0012,300823.0013, 300823.0015) have been associated with a severe phenotype, each has also been reported in patients with attenuated phenotypes. Similarly, the 1122C-T transition (300823.0002), which creates an alternate splice site with the loss of 20 amino acids, is primarily associated with an attenuated phenotype.

Contiguous Gene Deletion on Xq28 Involving the IDS Gene

In a patient with classic severe Hunter syndrome who also suffered from epileptic seizures, Steen-Bondeson et al. (1992) identified a deletion with a proximal breakpoint between DXS295 and DXS296. They noted that epileptic seizures were also described in 2 patients reported by Wilson et al. (1991) and Wraith et al. (1991) with a complete deletion of the IDS gene. A comparison of the breakpoints in the 3 patients suggested that a gene or genes located in the vicinity to the IDS gene may be involved in the development of epilepsy.

Birot et al. (1996) described a family with a cytogenetically evident deletion in Xq27.2-q28 that removed the IDS and FMR1 genes. This was said to be the largest deletion in this region of the X chromosome identified in a male patient, indicating that absence of any of the genes in this region would not be lethal.

Timms et al. (1997) used genomic DNA sequencing to identify several new genes in the IDS region. DNA deletion patients with atypical symptoms were analyzed to determine whether these atypical symptoms could be due to involvement of these other loci. The occurrence of seizures in 2 individuals correlated with a deletion extending proximal to IDS, up to and including part of the FMR2 locus (309548). Other (nonseizure) symptoms were associated with distal deletions. In addition, a group of patients with no variant symptoms, and a characteristic rearrangement involving a recombination between the IDS gene and an adjacent IDS pseudogene, showed normal expression of loci distal to IDS. Timms et al. (1997) concluded that together these results identified FMR2 as a candidate gene for seizures, when mutated along with IDS.

Karsten et al. (1997) noted that the region of the IDS gene, in addition to the IDS2 gene that harbors sequences homologous to exons 2 and 3 and introns 2, 3, and 7, contains several novel genes (e.g., genes W, X, and Y). In addition, a neighboring region has undergone a duplication and exists in an inverted version on the telomeric side of IDS. Karsten et al. (1997) identified 2 distinct deletions separated by 30 kb in a patient with Hunter syndrome. One deletion included exons 5 and 6 of the IDS gene; the second deletion included exons 3 and 4 of the W gene, located telomeric of the IDS gene. Both deletions were the result of nonhomologous (illegitimate) recombination events between short direct repeats at the deletion breakpoints. Lagerstedt et al. (2000) analyzed a 43.6-kb deletion in a patient with Hunter syndrome and found a fusion transcript including sequences from the gene W and the IDS gene. Surprisingly, a similar but longer fusion transcript containing exons 2-4 of gene W and exons 4-9 of the IDS gene could be detected in RNA of normal cell lines originating from various tissues.

Animal Model
Wilkerson et al. (1998) described Hunter syndrome in a Labrador retriever. The findings included coarse facial features, macrodactyly, unilateral corneal dystrophy (an atypical feature for type II mucopolysaccharidosis), generalized osteopenia, progressive neurologic deterioration, and a positive urine spot test for acid mucopolysaccharides. Deficiency in iduronate-2-sulfatase was demonstrated in cultured dermal fibroblasts. Hair root analysis for IDS showed that the dam (mother) was a carrier and that a phenotypically normal male littermate was normal.

Garcia et al. (2007) observed that male Ids-null mice showed increased urinary GAG excretion from 4 weeks of age through their life span. Tissue GAG levels were increased by 7 weeks of age. The mutant mice also showed hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, and enlargement of other organs compared to wildtype mice. Other features included coarse fur and sporadic alopecia, joint limitation, curved digits, abnormal skull development, decreased activity, and significantly decreased life span. Radiographic studies showed sclerosis and enlargement of the skull and appendicular bones. There was periosteal bone formation in the distal tibiae and calcification of the calcaneus tendon. Histologic studies revealed diffuse presence of foamy, vacuolated cell types in multiple organs. Garcia et al. (2007) noted the similarities to human disease.

History
Neufeld et al. (1977) described 2 families, each with a girl clinically affected with the Hunter syndrome and with profound deficiency of iduronate 2-sulfatase. The patients were karyotypically normal and had normal fathers. Cloning of the mothers' fibroblasts did not show the mosaicism expected of the X-linked disease. Homozygosity for a previously unsuspected autosomal recessive gene for iduronate sulfatase was considered the most likely explanation, although heterozygosity for the X-linked gene and subsequent selection could not be completely excluded. Studies of the enzyme at the molecular level and of complementation in somatic cell hybrids are required to distinguish between these possibilities. The mutation in the 2 families was presumably different (although perhaps allelic) because it took the severe form in one family and the mild form in the other. Strong support for autosomal recessive inheritance came from the fact that the parents were first cousins in one family and had ancestors from the same ethnic group and same small town in the other family. Neufeld (1981) suggested that these cases may have been instances of multiple sulfatase deficiency (272200) in which the deficiency of iduronate sulfatase is particularly striking. In 1 of the families, however, this did not appear to be the explanation.

(文献)
(1) Hunter C: A rare disease in two brothers. Proc R Soc Med 10(pt. 1):104-116, 1917
(2) Leroy JG, Crocker AC: Clinical definition of the Hurler-Hunter phenotypes. Am J Dis Child 112:518-530, 1966
(3) Erickson R et al. Biochemical differentiation of two forms of mucopolysaccharidosis II (Hunter's disease). Am J Hum Genet 24:26A, 1972
(4) Spranger J: The systemic mucopolysaccharidoses. Ergeb Inn Med Kinderheilkd 32:165-265, 1972
(5) Bach G et al. The defect in the Hunter syndrome: deficiency of sulfoiduronate sulfatase. Proc Nat Acad Sci 70: 2134-2138, 1973
(6) Wiesmann UN, Rampini S: Mild fomm of the Hunter syndrome: Identity of the biochemical defect with the severe type. Helv Paediatr Acta 229:73-79, 1974
(7) Prystkowski SD et al: A cutaneous marker in the Hunter syndrome. A report of four cases. Arch Dermatol 113:602-605, 1977
(8) Yatziv D et al. Mild and severe Hunter syndrome (MPS II) within the same sibships. Clin Genet 11: 319-326, 1977
(9) Hobolth N, Pedersen C. Six cases of a mild form of the Hunter syndrome in five generations: three affected males with progeny. Clin Genet 13: 121, 1978
(10) Spranger J et al: Mucopolysaccharidosis II (Hunter disease) with comeal opacities. Eur J Pediatr 129:11-16, 1978
(11) Yutaka T et al. Iduronate sulfatase analysis of hair roots for identification of Hunter syndrome heterozygotes. Am J Hum Genet 30: 575-582, 1978
(12) Young ID, Harper PS: Long-term complications in Hunter's syndrome. Clin Genet 16: 125-132, 1979
(13) Ballenger CE et al. Myelopathy in mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter syndrome). Ann Neurol 7: 382-385, 1980
(14) Schaap T, Bach G: Incidence of mucopolysaccharidosis in Israel: Is Hunter disease a Jewish disease? Hum Genet 56:211-226, 1980
(15) Van Pelt JF: Pediat Res 14: 749-756, 1980
(16) Wiesmann UN et al. Prenatal mucopolysaccharidosis II (Hunter): a pathogenetic study. Pediat Res. 14: 749-756, 1980
(17) Burk R et al. Multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD): clinical and biochemical studies in two patients. Am J Hum Genet 33: 73A, 1981
(18) Brown FR et al. Administration of iduronate sulfatase by plasma exchange to patients with the Hunter syndrome: a clinical study. Am J Med Genet 13: 309-318, 1982
(19) Tonnesen T et al. Diagnosis of Hunter's syndrome carriers; radioactive sulphate incorporation into fibroblasts in the presence of fructose 1-phosphate. Hum Genet 60: 167-171, 1982
(20) Young ID et al.: J Med Genet 19:401-407, 1982
(21) Young ID et al.: J Med Genet 19:408-411, 1982
(22) Young ID, Harper PS: Incidence of Hunter's syndrome. Hum Genet 60: 391-392, 1982
(23) YoungID, HarperPS: Mild form of Hunter's syndrome: Clinical delineation based on 31 cases. Arch Dis Child 57:828-836, 1982
(24) Archer IM et al. Carrier detection in Hunter syndrome. Am J Med Genet 16: 61-69, 1983
(25) Chakravarti A, Bale SJ: Differences in the frequency of X-linked deleterious genes in human populations. Am J Hum Genet 35: 1252-1257, 1983
(26) Dean MF: The iduronate sulphatase activities of cells and tissue fluids from patients with Hunter syndrome and normal controls. J Inherit Metab Dis 6:108-111, 1983
(27) Mossman J et al. Arch Dis Child 58: 911-915, 1983
(28) Petruschka L et al. Reliability of the Tonnesen technique for the identification of Hunter carriers. Hum Genet 64: 404-406, 1983
(29) Tonnesen T et al. Reliability of the use of fructose 1-phosphate to detect Hunter cells in fibroblast-cultures of obligate carriers of the Hunter syndrome. Hum Genet 64: 371-375, 1983
(30) Young ID, Harper PS: The natural history of the severe fomm of Hunter's syndrome: A study based on 52 cases. Dev Med Child Neurol 25:481-489, 1983
(31) Peck JE: Ear Her 5:243-246, 1984
(32) Schachern PA et al. Mucopolysaccharidosis I-H (Hurler's syndrome) and human temporal bone histopathology. Ann Otol. Rhinol. Laryng. 93: 65-69, 1984
(33) Tonnesen T: Physical localization of the X; autosomal translocation breakpoint from a girl expressing Hunter syndrome using Xq27-q28 DNA markers. Cytogenet Cell Genet 51: 1090, 1984
(34) Zlotogora J, Bach G: Heterozygote detection in Hunter syndrome. Am J Med Genet 17: 661-665, 1984
(35) McDonnell JM et al: Ocular histopathology of systemic mucopolysaccharidosis, type II-A (Hunter syndrome severe). Ophthalmology 92:1772-1779, 1985
(36) Mochi M et al. Linkage studies in Hunter families using X-linked DNA polymorphisms. Cytogenet Cell Genet 40: 700, 1985
(37) Shapiro J et al: Airway obstruction and sleep apnea in Hurler and Hunter syndromes. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 94:458-461, 1985
(38) Upadhyaya M et al. Hunter's syndrome: evidence supporting a location on the distal part of the X chromosome long arm. J Med Genet 22: 394-395, 1985
(39) Upadhyaya M et al. Localization of Hunter syndrome gene by genetic linkage analysis. Cytogenet Cell Genet 40: 765, 1985
(40) Zlotogora J et al. Hunter syndrome among Ashkenazi Jews in Israel; evidence for prenatal selection favoring the Hunter allele. Hum Genet 71: 329-332, 1985
(41) Broadhead DM et al. Full expression of Hunter's disease in a female with an X-chromosome deletion leading to non-random inactivation. Clin Genet 30: 392-398, 1986
(42) Burch M et al. Clin Genet 30:409-415, 1986
(43) Chase DS et al. Genetics of Hunter syndrome: carrier detection, new mutations, segregation and linkage analysis. Ann Hum Genet 50: 349-360, 1986
(44) Nielsen JB et al.: Eur J Pediatr 145:572-575, 1986
(45) Pannone N et al.: Prenatal Diag 6:207-210, 1986
(46) Upadhyaya M et al. Localisation of the gene for Hunter syndrome on the long arm of X chromosome. Hum Genet 74: 391-398, 1986
(47) Warkentin PI et al.: BDOAS 22(1):31-39, 1986
(48) Zlotogora J, Bach G: Hunter syndrome: prenatal diagnosis in maternal serum. Am J Hum Genet 38: 253-260, 1986
(49) Daniele A, Di Natale P: Hunter syndrome: presence of material cross-reacting with antibodies against iduronate sulfatase. Hum Genet 75: 234-238, 1987
(50) Roberts SH et al. Further evidence localizing the gene for Hunter syndrome to the most distal band of the X chromosome long arm. Cytogenet Cell Genet 46: 682, 1987
(51) Tsuzaki S et al. An unusually mild variant of Hunter's syndrome in a 14-year-old boy: normal growth and development. Acta Paediat Scand 76: 844-846, 1987
(52) Lissens W et al.: Prenat Diagn 8:59-63, 1988
(53) Roberts SH et al. Further evidence localising the gene for Hunter syndrome to Xq28. J Med Genet 25: 280, 1988
(54) Wakai S et al.: Pediatr Neurol 4:178-184, 1988
(55) Nelson J et al.: J Med Genet 26:731-732, 1989
(56) Peck JE: Further evidence localising the gene for Hunter's syndrome to the distal region on the X chromosome long arm. J Med Genet 26:309-313, 1989
(57) Roberts SH et al. Further evidence localising the gene for Hunter's syndrome to the distal region of the X chromosome long arm. J Med Genet 26: 309-313, 1989
(58) Suthers GK et al. A new DNA marker tightly linked to the fragile X locus (FRAXA). Science 246: 1298-1300, 1989
(59) Thomas NST et al. Physical localization of the X; autosomal translocation breakpoint from a girl expressing Hunter syndrome using Xq27-q28 DNA markers. Cytogenet Cell Genet 51: 1090, 1989
(60) Clarke JTR et al. Hunter disease (MPS, type II) in a karyotypically normal girl associated with selective X-chromosome inactivation. Am J Hum Genet 47 (suppl.): A52, 1990
(61) Clarke JTR et al. Hunter disease (mucopolysaccharidosis type II) associated with unbalanced inactivation of the X chromosomes in a karyotypically normal girl. Am J Hum Genet 49: 289-297, 1990
(62) Clarke JTR et al. Hunter disease (mucopolysaccharidosis type II) in a karyotypically normal girl. Clin Genet 37: 355-362, 1990
(63) Collins MLZ et al: Optic nerve head swelling and optic atrophy in the systemic mucopolysaccharidoses. Ophthalmology 97:1445-1449, 1990
(64) Couillin P et al. Strategy for constructing somatic hybrids isolating the two derivative chromosomes in X; autosome translocations: application to a female patient t(X; 5) with Hunter syndrome. Ann Genet 33: 196-207, 1990
(65) Le Guern E et al. More precise localization of the gene for Hunter syndrome. Genomics 7: 358-362, 1990
(66) Lowry RB et al. An update on the frequency of mucopolysaccharide syndromes in British Columbia. Hum Genet 85: 389-390, 1990
(67) Shimoda-Matsubayashi S et al: MRI findings in the mild type of mucopolysaccharidosis II (Hunter's syndrome). Neuroradiology 32:328-330, 1990
(68) Wilson PJ et al. Hunter syndrome: isolation of an iduronate-2-sulfatase cDNA clone and analysis of patient DNA. Proc Nat Acad Sci 87: 8531-8535, 1990
(69) Bakker E et al. Partial gene deletions in 3 out of 12 Dutch Hunter patients: direct and indirect carrier detection by DNA-analysis. Cytogenet Cell Genet 58: 2055-2056, 1991
(70) Clarke JT et al: Hunter disease (mucopolysaccharidosis type II) associated with unbalanced inactivation of the X chromosomes in a karyotypically normal girl. Am J Hum Genet 49:289-297, 1991
(71) Cooper A et al: First trimester diagnosis of Hunter syndrome: Very low iduronate sulphatase activity in chononic villi from a heterozygous female fetus. PrenatDiagn 11:731-735, 1991
(72) Lupski JR et al. Discordance of muscular dystrophy in monozygotic female twins: evidence supporting asymmetric splitting of the inner cell mass in a manifesting carrier of Duchenne dystrophy. Am J Med Genet 40: 354-364, 1991
(73) Machill G et al. Lupski, J R.; Garcia, C. A.; Zoghbi, H. Y.; Hoffman, E. P. and Fenwick, R. G. Discordance of muscular dystrophy in monozygotic female twins: evidence supporting asymmetric splitting of the inner cell mass in a manifesting carrier of Duch, 1991
(74) Wilson PJ et al. Frequent deletions at Xq28 indicate genetic heterogeneity in Hunter syndrome. Hum Genet 86: 505-508, 1991
(75) Wraith JE et al. The clinical phenotype of two patients with a complete deletion of the iduronate-2-sulphatase gene (mucopolysaccharidosis II--Hunter syndrome). Hum Genet 87: 205-206, 1991
(76) Zlotogora J et al. Hunter syndrome in Jews in Israel: further evidence for prenatal selection favoring the Hunter allele. Hum Genet 86: 531-533, 1991
(77) Beck M et al. Deletion of the Hunter gene and both DXS466 and DXS304 in a patient with mucopolysaccharidosis type II. Am J Med Genet 44: 100-103, 1992
(78) Bunge S et al. Mutation analysis of the iduronate-2-sulfatase gene in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter syndrome). Hum Molec Genet 1: 335-339, 1992
(79) Clarke JTR et al. Characterization of a deletion at Xq27-q28 associated with unbalanced inactivation of the nonmutant X chromosome. Am J Hum Genet 51: 316-322, 1992
(80) Crotty PL et al. Mutation R468W of the iduronate-2-sulfatase gene in mild Hunter syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type II) confirmed by in vitro mutagenesis and expression. Hum Molec Genet 1: 755-757, 1992
(81) Faust CJ et al. Genetic mapping on the mouse X chromosome of human cDNA clones for the fragile X and Hunter syndromes. Genomics 12: 814-817, 1992
(82) Flomen RH et al. Detection of point mutations and a gross deletion in six Hunter syndrome patients. Genomics 13: 543-550, 1992
(83) Palmieri G et al. The iduronate sulfatase gene: isolation of a 1.2-Mb YAC contig spanning the entire gene and identification of heterogeneous deletions in patients with Hunter syndrome. Genomics 12: 52-57, 1992
(84) Resnick JM et al: Pathology of the liver in mucopolysaccharidosis: Light and electronmicroscopic assessment before and after bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant 10:273-280, 1992
(85) Sukegawa K et al. Intermediate form of mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter disease): a C-1327 to T substitution in the iduronate sulfatase gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 183: 809-813, 1992
(86) Sukegawa K et al: Intermediate fomm of mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter disease): A Cl327 to T substitution in the iduronate sulfatase gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 183:809-813, 1992
(87) Wehnert M et al. Structural gene aberrations in mucopolysaccharidosis II (Hunter). Hum Genet 89: 430-432, 1992
(88) Winchester B et al. Female twin with Hunter disease due to nonrandom inactivation of the X-chromosome: a consequence of twinning. Am J Med Genet 44: 834-838, 1992
(89) Ben Simon-Schiff E et al. Combined enzymatic and linkage analysis for heterozygote detection in Hunter syndrome: identification of an apparent case of germinal mosaicism. Am J Med Genet 47: 837-842, 1993
(90) Braun SE et al. Metabolic correction and cross-correction of mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter syndrome) by retroviral-mediated gene transfer and expression of human iduronate-2-sulfatase. Proc Nat Acad Sci 90: 11830-11834, 1993
(91) Bunge S et al. Iduronate-2-sulfatase gene mutations in 16 patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter syndrome). Hum Molec Genet 2: 1871-1875, 1993
(92) Daniele A et al. Cloning and characterization of the cDNA for the murine iduronate sulfatase gene. Genomics 16: 755-757, 1993
(93) Flomen RH et al. Determination of the organisation of coding sequences within the iduronate sulphate sulphatase (IDS) gene. Hum Molec Genet 2: 5-10, 1993
(94) Froissart R et al. Hunter syndrome: gene deletions and rearrangements. Hum Mutat. 2: 138-140, 1993
(95) Hopwood JJ et al. Molecular basis of mucopolysaccharidosis type II: mutations in the iduronate-2-sulphatase gene. Hum Mutat. 2: 435-442, 1993
(96) Schroder W et al. Carrier detection of Hunter syndrome (MPS II) by biochemical and DNA techniques in families at risk. J Med Genet 30: 210-213, 1993
(97) Whitley CB et al. Caveat to genotype-phenotype correlation in mucopolysaccharidosis type II: discordant clinical severity of R468W and R468Q mutations of the iduronate-2-sulfatase gene. Hum Mutat. 2: 235-237, 1993
(98) Wilson PJ et al. Sequence of the human iduronate 2-sulfatase (IDS) gene. Genomics 17: 773-775, 1993
(99) Yamada Y et al: Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter disease): 13 gene mutations in 52 Japanese patients and carrier detection in four families. Hum Genet92:110-114, 1993
(100) Fensom AH, Benson PF: Recent advances in the prenatal diagnosis of the mucopolysaccharidoses. Prenat Diagn 14:1-12, 1994
(101) Koyama K et al. Neurogenic bladder in Hunter's syndrome. J Med Genet 31 (3): 257-8, 1994
(102) Sheridan M, Johnston I: Hydrocephalus and pseudotumour cerebri in the mucopolysaccharidoses. Childs Nerv Syst 10:148-150, 1994
(103) Bax MC, Colville GA: Behaviour in mucopolysaccharide disorders. Arch Dis Child 73:77-81, 1995
(104) Bondeson ML et al. Inversion of the IDS gene resulting from recombination with IDS-related sequences is a common cause of the Hunter syndrome. Hum Mol Genet 4 (4): 615-21, 1995
(105) Bondeson M-L et al. Presence of an IDS-related locus (IDS2) in Xq28 complicates the mutational analysis of Hunter syndrome. Eur J Hum Genet.3: 219-227, 1995
(106) Downs AT et al: Hunter's syndrome and oral manifestations: A review. Pediatr Dent 17:98-100, 1995
(107) Jonsson JJ et al. Molecular diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter syndrome) by automated sequencing and computer-assisted interpretation: toward mutation mapping of the iduronate-2-sulfatase gene. Am J Hum Genet 56 (3): 597-607, 1995
(108) Jonsson JJ et al. Molecular diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter syndrome) by automated sequencing and computer-assisted interpretation: toward mutation mapping of the iduronate-2-sulfatase gene. Am J Hum Genet 56: 597-607, 1995
(109) Malmgren H et al. Identification of an alternative transcript from the human iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS) gene. Genomics 29: 291-293, 1995
(110) Neufeld EF, Muenzer J: The mucopolysaccharidoses. In: The Metabolic Basis of Inherited Disease, 7th ed, Scriver CR et al (eds), McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 2464-2494, 1995
(111) Rathmann M et al. Evidence for an iduronate-sulfatase pseudogene near the functional Hunter syndrome gene in Xq27.3-q28. Hum Genet 95 (1): 34-8, 1995
(112) Sukegawa K et al. Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter disease): identification and characterization of eight point mutations in the iduronate-2-sulfatase gene in Japanese patients. Hum Mutat 6: 136-143, 1995
(113) Birot AM et al. A 5-megabase familial deletion removes the IDS and FMR-1 genes in a male Hunter patient. Hum Mutat 7: 266-268, 1996
(114) Birot A-M et al. IDS gene-pseudogene exchange responsible for an intragenic deletion in a Hunter patient. Hum Mutat 8: 44-50, 1996
(115) Goldenfum SL et al. Mutation analysis in 20 patients with Hunter disease. Hum Mutat 7: 76-78, 1996
(116) Narita AS, Russell-Eggit I: Bilateral epiretinal membranes: A new finding in Hunter syndrome. Ophthalmic Genet 17:75-78, 1996
(117) Parsons VJ et al: Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, neck and cervical spine in mild Hunter's syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type II). Clin Radiol 51:719-723, 1996
(118) Rathmann M et al. Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter syndrome): mutation 'hot spots' in the iduronate-2-sulfatase gene. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 59: 1202-1209, 1996
(119) Schiro JA et al. Grouped papules in Hurler-Scheie syndrome. J. Am. Acad. Derm. 35: 868-870, 1996
(120) Froissart R et al. Germline and somatic mosaicism in a female carrier of Hunter disease. J. Med. Genet. 34: 137-140, 1997
(121) Karsten SL et al. Two distinct deletions in the IDS gene and the gene W: a novel type of mutation associated with the Hunter syndrome. Genomics 43: 123-129, 1997
(122) Lissens W et al: Molecular analysis in 23 Hunter disease families. J Inherit Metab Dis 20:453 456, 1997
(123) Nelson J: Incidence of the mucopolysaccharidoses in Northern Ireland. Hum Genet 101:355-358, 1997
(124) Sukegawa K et al. Hunter disease in a girl caused by R468Q mutation in the iduronate-2-sulfatase gene and skewed inactivation of the X chromosome carrying the normal allele. Hum. Mutat. 10: 361-367, 1997
(125) Timms KM et al. Molecular and phenotypic variation in patients with severe Hunter syndrome. Hum. Molec. Genet. 6: 479-486, 1997
(126) Froissart R et al. Identification of iduronate sulfatase gene alterations in 70 unrelated Hunter patients. Clin. Genet. 53: 362-368, 1998
(127) Gort L et al. Hunter disease in the Spanish population: molecular analysis in 31 families. J. Inherit. Metab. Dis. 21: 655-661, 1998
(128) Isogai K et al. Mutation analysis in the iduronate-2-sulphatase gene in 43 Japanese patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter disease). J. Inherit. Metab. Dis. 21: 60-70, 1998
(129) Karsten S et al. Mutational spectrum of the iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS) gene in 36 unrelated Russian MPS II patients. Hum. Genet. 103: 732-735, 1998
(130) Sukegawa K et al. Brother/sister siblings affected with Hunter disease: evidence for skewed X chromosome inactivation. Clin. Genet. 52: 96-101, 1998
(131) Thappa DM: Pebbling of the skin. A marker of Hunter's syndrome. Pediatr Dermatol 15:370 373, 1998
(132) Timms KM et al. DNA deletion confined to the iduronate-2-sulfatase promoter abolishes IDS gene expression. Hum. Mutat. 11: 121-126, 1998
(133) Timms KM et al. Reassessment of biochemically determined Hunter syndrome carrier status by DNA testing. J. Med. Genet. 35: 646-649, 1998
(134) Wilkerson MJ et al. Clinical and morphologic features of mucopolysaccharidosis type II in a dog: naturally occurring model of Hunter syndrome. Vet. Path. 35: 230-233, 1998
(135) Li P et al. Molecular basis of iduronate-2-sulphatase gene mutations in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter syndrome). J. Med. Genet. 36: 21-27, 1999
(136) Vellodi A et al. Long-term follow-up following bone marrow transplantation for Hunter disease. J. Inherit. Metab. Dis. 22: 638-648, 1999
(137) Lagerstedt K et al. Analysis of a 43.6 kb deletion in a patient with Hunter syndrome (MPSII): identification of a fusion transcript including sequences from the gene W and the IDS gene. Hum. Mutat. 15: 324-331, 2000
(138) Bonuccelli G et al. The effect of four mutations on the expression of iduronate-2-sulfatase in mucopolysaccharidosis type II. Biochim. et Biophys. Acta 1537: 233-238, 2001
(139) Nelson, J.; Crowhurst, J.; Carey, B.; Greed, L. : Incidence of the mucopolysaccharidoses in western Australia. Am J Med Genet 123A: 310-313, 2003
(140) Ochiai, T.; Ito, K.; Okada, T.; Chin, M.; Shichino, H.; Mugishima, H. : Significance of extensive Mongolian spots in Hunter's syndrome. Brit. J. Derm. 148: 1173-1178, 2003
(141) Ricci, V.; Filocamo, M.; Regis, S.; Corsolini, F.; Stroppiano, M.; Di Duca, M.; Gatti, R. : Expression studies of two novel in CIS-mutations identified in an intermediate case of Hunter syndrome. Am J Med Genet 120A: 84-87, 2003
(142) Tomatsu, S.; Orii, K. O.; Bi, Y.; Gutierrez, M. A.; Nishioka, T.; Yamaguchi, S.; Kondo, N.; Orii, T.; Noguchi, A.; Sly, W. S. : General implications for CpG hot spot mutations: methylation patterns of the human iduronate-2-sulfatase gene locus. Hum. Mutat. 23: 590-598, 2004
(143) Garcia, A. R.; Pan, J.; Lamsa, J. C.; Muenzer, J. : The characterization of a murine model of mucopolysaccharidosis II (Hunter syndrome). J. Inherit. Metab. Dis. 30: 924-934, 2007
(144) Lin, H.-Y.; Lin, S.-P.; Chuang, C.-K.; Niu, D.-M.; Chen, M.-R.; Tsai, F.-J.; Chao, M.-C.; Chiu, P.-C.; Lin, S.-J.; Tsai, L.-P.; Hwu, W.-L.; Lin, J.-L. : Incidence of the mucopolysaccharidoses in Taiwan, 1984-2004. Am. J. Med. Genet. 149A: 960-964, 2009
(145) Muenzer, J., Beck, M., Eng, C. M., Escolar, M. L., Giugliani, R., Guffon, N. H., Harmatz, P., Kamin, W., Kampmann, C., Koseoglu, S. T., Link, B., Martin, R. A., Molter, D. W., Munoz Rojas, M. V., Ogilvie, J. W., Parini, R., Ramaswami, U., Scarpa, M., Schwartz, I. V., Wood, R. E., Wraith, E. Multidisciplinary management of Hunter syndrome. Pediatrics 124: e1228-e1239, 2009
(146) Wang, R. Y., Cambray-Forker, E. J., Ohanian, K., Karlin, D. S., Covault, K. K., Schwartz, P. H., Abdenur, J. E. Treatment reduces or stabilizes brain imaging abnormalities in patients with MPS I and II. Molec. Genet. Metab. 98: 406-411, 2009
(147) Wang, R. Y., Bodamer, O. A., Watson, M. S., Wilcox, W. R. Lysosomal storage diseases: diagnostic confirmation and management of presymptomatic individuals. Genet. Med. 13: 457-484, 2011
(148) Huang, C.-T., Chu, S.-Y., Lee, Y.-C. Optical coherence tomography of chorioretinopathy caused by mucopolysaccharidoses. Ophthalmology 122: 1535-1537, 2015
(149) Yund, B., Rudser, K., Ahmed, A., Kovac, V., Nestrasil, I., Raiman, J., Mamak, E., Harmatz, P., Steiner, R., Lau, H., Vekaria, P., Wozniak, J. R., Lim, K. O., Delaney, K., Whitley, C., Shapiro, E. G. Cognitive, medical, and neuroimaging characteristics of attenuated mucopolysaccharidosis type II. Molec. Genet. Metab. 114: 170-177, 2015
(150) Khan, S. A., Peracha, H., Ballhausen, D., Wiesbauer, A., Rohrbach, M., Gautschi, M., Mason, R. W., Giugliani, R., Suzuki, Y., Orii, K. E., Orii, T., Tomatsu, S. Epidemiology of mucopolysaccharidoses. Molec. Genet. Metab. 121: 227-240, 2017
(151) Wikman-Jorgensen, P. E., Lopez Amoros, A., Peris Garcia, J., Esteve Atienzar, P. J., Canizares Navarro, R., Arsenio Tomas, M. L., Segui Ripoll, J. M., Bonet, D., Esteban-Giner, M. J., Robert, J., Giner-Galvan, V. Enzyme replacement therapy for the treatment of Hunter disease: a systematic review with narrative synthesis and meta-analysis. Molec. Genet. Metab. 131: 206-210, 2020

2010/10/05
2011/07/22
2015/02/26 ノート追加/改訂
2016/04/19 ノート/文献追加
2016/12/11 SNP
2018/05/30 ノート/文献追加
2021/04/07 ノート/文献追加