Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD)
(Cerebral sclerosis, diffuse, metachromatic form)
(Arylsulfatase A deficiency)
(Cerebroside sulfatase deficiency)
(Pseudoarylsulfatase A deficiency, included)
(Metachromatic leukodystrophy, late-infantile, included)
(Metachromatic leukodystrophy, juvenile, included)
(Metachromatic leukodystrophy, adult, included)
(大脳硬化症, びまん性, 異染性型)
(アリルスルファターゼ A 欠損症)
(偽アリルスルファターゼ A 欠損症)
小児慢性特定疾病 代88 異染性白質ジストロフィー
責任遺伝子：607574 ARSA (arylsulfatase A) <22q13>
Ataxia (運動失調) [HP:0001251] 
Behavioral abnormality (行動異常) [HP:0000708] 
Coma (昏睡) [HP:0001259] 
Decreased nerve conduction velocity (神経伝導速度減少) [HP:0000762]
Developmental regression (発達退行) [HP:0002376] 
Gait disturbance (歩行障害) [HP:0001288] 
Genu recurvatum (反張膝) [HP:0002816] 
Intellectual disability (知的障害) [HP:0001249] 
Muscle weakness (筋力低下) [HP:0001324] 
Neurological speech impairment (神経学的発語障害) [HP:0002167] 
Peripheral neuropathy (末梢ニューロパチー) [HP:0009830] 
Amaurosis fugax (一過性黒内障) [HP:0100576] 
Hyperreflexia (反射亢進) [HP:0001347] 
Joint stiffness (関節硬直) [HP:0001387] 
Muscular hypotonia (筋緊張低下) [HP:0001252] 
Nystagmus (眼振) [HP:0000639] 
Optic atrophy (視神経萎縮) [HP:0000648] 
Reduced tendon reflexes (腱反射低下) [HP:0001315] 
Spasticity (痙縮) [HP:0001257] 
Aganglionic megacolon (無神経節性巨大結腸) [HP:0002251] 
Abnormality of the cerebral white matter (大脳白質異常) [HP:0002500] 
Autosomal recessive inheritance (常染色体劣性遺伝) [HP:0000007]
Babinski sign (バビンスキー徴候) [HP:0003487] 
Bulbar palsy (球麻痺) [HP:0001283] 
Cholecystitis (胆のう炎) [HP:0001082] 
Chorea (舞踏病) [HP:0002072] 
Delusions (妄想) [HP:0000746] 
Dysarthria (構音障害) [HP:0001260] 
Dystonia (ジストニア) [HP:0001332] 
EMG: neuropathic changes (筋電図: ニューロパチー変化) [HP:0003445]
Emotional lability (情緒不安定) [HP:0000712 ) 
Gallbladder dysfunction (胆嚢機能障害) [HP:0005609] 
Generalized hypotonia (全身性筋緊張低下) [HP:0001290] 
Hallucinations (幻覚) [HP:0000738] 
Hyporeflexia (低反射) [HP:0001265] 
Increased CSF protein (髄液中蛋白増加) [HP:0002922]
Loss of speech (発語喪失) [HP:0002371] 
Mental deterioration (知的悪化) [HP:0001268] 
Peripheral demyelination (末梢脱髄) [HP:0011096] 
Progressive peripheral neuropathy (進行性末梢ニューロパチー) [HP:0007133] 
Spastic tetraplegia (痙性四肢麻痺) [HP:0002510]  
Tetraplegia (四肢麻痺) [HP:0002445] 
Urinary incontinence (遺尿) [HP:0000020] 
【検査】中枢および末梢神経と内臓への異染性沈着 (sulfatide を含む物質)
arylsulfatase A (ARSA) 活性低値 (尿, 白血球, 線維芽細胞)
尿中 sulfatide 排泄増加 (より特異的)
*髄液蛋白増加 (通常100 mg 以上)
galactosphingosulfatides 過剰→非常に異染性が強くPAS染色で明るいピンク色に二重にみえる (大脳白質, 腎, 尿沈渣)
乳児期後半発症 6-24 か月
Pseudoarylsulfatase A 欠損は ARSA 活性低値をもつアレリック疾患であるが, 神経症状はない
運動発達遅滞 → 進行性歩行消失 → 反張膝 (下肢病変) → 上肢病変 → 2-2.5歳までに坐不能
腱反射低下 (早期) / 腱反射亢進 (後半)
捻転スパスム (頸部, 脊椎, 四肢)
失調歩行 → 進行性の歩行障害
診断後 4-6 年で死亡
●異染性白質ジストロフィー (MLD, Arylsulfatase A 欠乏症) は, 白質ジストロフィーのファミリーにリストされるリソソーム蓄積症である
arylsulfatase A 欠乏が直接的原因である
最も多い型 (50-60%)で, 通常15-24か月に歩行障害をもつ
筋萎縮と衰弱, 筋強直, 発達遅滞, 進行性視力障害→盲, けいれん, 嚥下障害, 麻痺, 認知症, 昏睡がみられる
2) 若年型 (3–10 歳発症)
学習障害, 精神悪化, 痴呆症で始まる
骨髄移植 (幹細胞移植), 酵素置換療法などが試行
＜小児慢性特定疾病 代88 異染性白質ジストロフィー＞
異染性白質ジストロフィーは, アリルスルファターゼAの欠損により発症する, 常染色体劣性遺伝形式を示す遺伝病である。脳白質, 末梢神経, 腎臓などにスルファチドが蓄積し, 中枢および末梢神経障害をきたす。発症頻度は4万～16万人に1人である。発症時期と臨床経過により, 乳児型, 若年型, 成人型に分類される。乳児型は2歳までに発症し, 筋緊張低下, 深部腱反射消失, 歩行障害を呈する。若年型は4～6歳頃に発症し, 視神経萎縮, 知能障害, 痙性麻痺などを呈する。成人型は10代後半以降に情緒障害, 言語障害, 痴呆, 精神症状などで発症し, 5～10年の経過で進行する。
ARSA遺伝子がコードするアリルスルファターゼAの欠損によりスルファチド, リゾスルファチド, セラミドラクトシル硫酸などの糖脂質が脳や腎臟に蓄積する。
生後15-24ヶ月頃に発症する, 乳幼児型が全体の50-60％をしめる。筋力低下, 表情が乏しいなど初発症状がある。言葉の消失, 嚥下困難, 下肢からはじまる痙性まひ, けいれんなどの症状が出現し, 退行してゆく。若年型は3歳～10歳から歩行障害, 知的障害, 錐体路症状など出現し進行する。成人型は20歳以降で痴呆などの症状で発症し, 精神症状を伴う場合もある。頭部MRIで, 著明な白質変性を認める。
1. 乳児型は, 進行性の筋力低下, 歩行障害, 笑いの消失, 痙性麻痺がなどの症状が参考となる。MRIなどの脳画像で白質の変性が見られる。
3. 酵素活性測定では, 末梢血リンパ球または培養皮膚線維芽細胞を用いてアリルスルファターゼAの活性を測定する。
4. 遺伝カウンセリングなどの情報として, 遺伝子診断は有用である。しかし, 酵素活性から診断が確実となった患者でも, 遺伝子診断では変異が見つからない場合がある。
現段階では対症療法に限られる。造血幹細胞移植が行われる場合もあり, 初期の段階で行われれば症状の進行を抑制できる患者さんもいる。現在, 遺伝子治療の開発が進められている。
乳幼児型, 若年型は予後不良であり, 成人に達することは困難である。
(機序) リソソーム cerebroside sulfatase 欠損→ sulfatide (galactocerebroside の硫酸エステル) 分割不全→脳, 末梢神経および胆嚢へのsulfatideの蓄積→髄鞘膜の進行性破壊
･Juvenilte sulfatidosis, Austin tyoe (272200)→ sulfatides / sulfated steroids / sulfated mucopolysaccharides / gangliosides の蓄積 (+骨格奇形 / 魚鱗癬 / 聾)
･Pseudodeficiency: ARSA 低値だが線維芽細胞は cerebroside sulfate を異化する
(責任遺伝子) *607574 ARSA (arylsulfatase A) <22q13.33>
(1) Arylsulfatase A pseudodeficiency (250100), Metachromatic leukodystrophy, juvenile (250100), Metachromatic leukodystrophy, adult (250100), Metachromatic leukodystrophy, late infantile (250100)
.0001 Arylsulfatase A pseudodeficiency [ARSA, MUTATION IN POLYADENYLATION SIGNAL [dbSNP:rs6151429] (RCV000003190...) (Gieselmann et al. 1989; Nelson et al. 1991; Barth et al. 1994; Li et al. 1992; Harvey et al. 1998)
.0002 Arylsulfatase A polymorphism [ARSA, ARG350SER] (dbSNP:rs2071421) (RCV000078931...) (Gieselmann et al. 1989)
.0003 Metachromatic leukodystrophy, juvenile (Arylsulfatase A, allele I, included) (Metachromatic leukodystrophy, adult, included) [ARSA, IVS2DS, G-A, +1] (dbSNP:rs80338815) (RCV000335617...) (Polten et al. 1991; Heinisch et al. 1995; Draghia et al. 1997)
.0004 Arylsulfatase A, allele A (Arylsulfatase A, allele A, included) (Metachromatic leukodystrophy, adult, included) [ARSA, PRO426LEU] (dbSNP:rs28940893) (RCV000392246...)(Polten et al. 1991; Draghia et al. 1997)
.0005 Metachromatic leukodystrophy, adult [ARSA, GLY99ASP] (dbSNP:rs74315455) (RCV000003198...) (Kondo et al. 1991)
.0006 Metachromatic leukodystrophy, late infantile [ARSA, SER96PHE] (dbSNP:rs74315456) (RCV000003199...) (Gieselmann et al. 1991)
.0007 Metachromatic leukodystrophy, late infantile [ARSA, 11-BP DEL, EX8] (RCV000003200) (Bohne et al. 1991)
.0008 Metachromatic leukodystrophy, juvenile (Metachromatic leukodystrophy, adult, included) [ARSA, ILE-TO-SER, EX3] (dbSNP:rs74315457) (RCV000020320...) (Fluharty et al. 1991)
.0009 Metachromatic leukodystrophy, juvenile [ARSA, IVS7DS, G-A, +1] (dbSNP:rs80338820) (RCV000020312...) (Fluharty et al. 1991)
.0010 Metachromatic leukodystrophy, late-onset [ARSA, ARG84GLN] (dbSNP:rs74315458) (RCV000003205...) (Kappler et al. 1992)
.0011 Metachromatic leukodystrophy, late infantile [ARSA, GLY309SER] (dbSNP:rs74315459) (ExAC:rs74315459) (RCV000666302...) (Kreysing et al. 1993)
.0012 Metachromatic leukodystrophy, late infantile [ARSA, 1-BP DEL, FS105TER] (RCV000003201) (Kreysing et al. 1993)
.0013 Metachromatic leukodystrophy, severe [ARSA, GLY86ASP] (dbSNP:rs74315460) (RCV000003207) (Gieselmann et al. 1994)
.0014 Metachromatic leukodystrophy, severe [ARSA, SER96LEU [dbSNP:rs199476371] (RCV000003208...) (Gieselmann et al. 1994)
.0015 Metachromatic leukodystrophy [ARSA, GLY122SER] (dbSNP:rs74315461) (RCV000078945...) (Honke et al. 1993; Kappler et al. 1994)
.0016 Metachromatic leukodystrophy, severe [ARSA, PRO136LEU] (dbSNP:rs74315462) (ExAC:rs74315462) (RCV000003210...) (Gieselmann et al. 1994)
.0017 Metachromatic leukodystrophy [ARSA, 1-BP DEL, 297C DEL] (RCV000003211) (Kreysing et al. 1993)
.0018 Metachromatic leukodystrophy [ARSA, GLY154ASP] (dbSNP:rs74315463) (RCV000003212) (Kappler et al. 1994)
.0019 Arylsulfatase A pseudodeficiency [ARSA, PRO155ARG] (dbSNP:rs74315464) (RCV000003213) (Gieselmann et al. 1994)
.0020 Metachromatic leukodystrophy [ARSA, PRO167ARG] (dbSNP:rs74315465) (RCV000003214) (Kappler et al. 1994)
.0021 Arylsulfatase A pseudodeficiency [ARSA, ASP169ASN] (dbSNP:rs74315466) (RCV000540770...) (Gieselmann et al. 1994)
.0022 Metachromatic leukodystrophy [ARSA, ALA212VAL] (dbSNP:rs74315467) (RCV000003216) (Barth et al. 1993)
.0023 Metachromatic leukodystrophy [ARSA, ALA224VAL] (dbSNP:rs74315468) (RCV000343115...) (Barth et al. 1993)
.0024 Metachromatic leukodystrophy [ARSA, PRO231THR] (dbSNP:rs74315469) (RCV000003218) (Caillaud et al. 1993)
.0025 Metachromatic leukodystrophy [ARSA, ARG244CYS] (dbSNP:rs74315470) (RCV000003219) (Gieselmann et al. 1994)
.0026 Metachromatic leukodystrophy, severe [ARSA, GLY245ARG] (dbSNP:rs74315471) (RCV000020321...) (Hasegawa et al. 1993)
.0027 Metachromatic leukodystrophy, severe [ARSA, THR274MET] (dbSNP:rs74315472) (RCV001069246...) (Harvey et al. 1993)
.0028 Metachromatic leukodystrophy, severe [ARSA, IVS4DS, G-A, +1] (RCV000003222) (Pastor-Soler et al. 1994)
.0029 Metachromatic leukodystrophy [ARSA, ARG288CYS] (dbSNP:rs74315473) (RCV000003223) (Gieselmann et al. 1994)
.0030 Metachromatic leukodystrophy, severe [ARSA, SER295TYR] (dbSNP:rs74315474) (RCV000003224...) (Barth et al. 1993)
.0031 Arylsulfatase A pseudodeficiency [ARSA, IVS5DS, G-T, -1, GLY325CYS] (RCV000003225) (Gieselmann et al. 1994)
.0032 Metachromatic leukodystrophy, severe [ARSA, ASP335VAL] (dbSNP:rs74315475) (ExAC:rs74315475) (RCV000003226...) (Gieselmann et al. 1994)
.0033 Metachromatic leukodystrophy, severe [ARSA, ARG370TRP] (dbSNP:rs74315476) (RCV000003227...) (Gieselmann et al. 1994)
.0034 Metachromatic leukodystrophy, mild [ARSA, ARG370GLN] (dbSNP:rs74315477) (RCV000544790...) (Gieselmann et al. 1994)
.0035 Arylsulfatase A pseudodeficiency, severe [ARSA, PRO377LEU] (dbSNP:rs74315478) (RCV000003229) (Zlotogora et al. 1994)
.0036 Arylsulfatase A pseudodeficiency, intermediate [ARSA, GLU382LYS] (dbSNP:rs74315479) (ExAC:rs74315479) (RCV000003230...) (Barth et al. 1994)
.0037 Metachromatic leukodystrophy [ARSA, ARG390TRP] (dbSNP:rs74315480) (RCV000003231) (Gieselmann et al. 1994)
.0038 Metachromatic leukodystrophy [ARSA, 3-BP DEL, PHE398DEL] (RCV000003232) (Gieselmann et al. 1994)
.0039 Metachromatic leukodystrophy, mild [ARSA, THR409ILE] (dbSNP:rs74315481) (RCV000003233...) (Hasegawa et al. 1994)
.0040 Arylsulfatase A pseudodeficiency [ARSA, GLN486TER] (dbSNP:rs74315482) (RCV000003234) (Gieselmann et al. 1994)
.0041 MOVED TO 607574.0008 
.0042 Metachromatic leukodystrophy, adult [ARSA, THR566CYS] (dbSNP:rs121434215) (RCV000003235) (Gomez-Lira et al. 1998)
.0043 Metachromatic leukodystrophy, adult [ARSA, THR286PRO] (dbSNP:rs28940894) (RCV000003236) (Felice et al. 2000)
.0044 Metachromatic leukodystrophy, late infantile [ARSA, GLU253LYS] (dbSNP:rs74315483) (Regis et al. 2002)
.0045 Metachromatic leukodystrophy, adult [ARSA, THR408ILE] (dbSNP:rs28940895) (RCV000364541...) (ExAC:rs28940895) (RCV000003238) (Comabella et al. 2001)
.0046 Metachromatic leukodystrophy, late infantile [ARSA, CYS300PHE] (dbSNP:rs74315484) (RCV000003239...) (Marcao et al. 1999, 2003)
.0047 Metachromatic leukodystrophy, juvenile [ARSA, PRO425THR] (dbSNP:rs74315485) (RCV000003240) (Marcao et al. 1999, 2003)
A number sign (#) is used with this entry because metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutation in the arylsulfatase A gene (ARSA; 607574) on chromosome 22q13.
● 異染性白質ジストロフィー はいくつかのアレリック疾患をもつ
●Kihara (1982) は MLD の5つのアレリック型を認めた
→ 後期乳児型, 若年型, 成人型, 部分的 cerebroside sulfate 欠乏症, pseudoarylsulfatase A 欠乏症
→ metachromatic leukodystrophy due to saposin B deficiency (249900)
multiple sulfatase deficiency または juvenile sulfatidosis (272200); 異染性白質ジストロフィーの特徴をムコ多糖症の特徴をあわせもつ疾患
Late Infantile and Juvenile Forms
This condition was described by Greenfield (1933). In the late infantile form, onset is usually in the second year of life and death occurs before 5 years in most. Clinical features are motor symptoms, rigidity, mental deterioration, and sometimes convulsions. Early development is normal but onset occurs before 30 months of age. The cerebrospinal fluid contains elevated protein. Galactosphingosulfatides that are strongly metachromatic, doubly refractile in polarized light, and pink with PAS are found in excess in the white matter of the central nervous system, in the kidney, and in the urinary sediment (Austin, 1960).
Masters et al. (1964) described 4 cases in 2 families. Progressive physical and mental deterioration began a few months after birth. Megacolon with attacks of abdominal distention was observed. Sufficient difference from the usual cases existed for the authors to suggest that more than one entity is encompassed by metachromatic leukodystrophy. A curious feature of later bedridden stages of the disease was marked genu recurvatum. The first manifestations, appearing before the second birthday, included hypotonia, muscle weakness and unsteady gait, thus suggesting a myopathy or neuropathy.
Gustavson and Hagberg (1971) described 13 cases of late infantile MLD from 11 families. Two pairs of families were related to each other and 3 sets of parents were consanguineous, suggesting autosomal recessive inheritance.
Lyon et al. (1961) described affected brothers with onset at 7 and 4 years of age and with marked elevation of protein in the cerebrospinal fluid. Schutta et al. (1966) recognized a juvenile form of metachromatic leukodystrophy with onset between ages 4 and 10 years, as compared with the more frequent late infantile form with onset between ages 12 and 24 months.
Moser (1972) suggested that juvenile cases of MLD, especially those of late juvenile onset, should be classed with the adult form. An alternative possibility was that some of these cases with phenotype intermediate between those of the late infantile and adult forms represented genetic compounds. The same very low levels of arylsulfatase A were found in the infantile, juvenile, and adult forms, and the reason for the differences in age of onset was unknown.
Von Figura et al. (1986) pointed out that the late-onset form of MLD is a heterogeneous group in which symptoms may develop at any age beyond 3 years. The age of demarcation of juvenile forms from adult forms is somewhat arbitrarily set at age 16 by some and age 21 by others. In the late-onset forms the disease progresses more slowly, and in mild cases the diagnosis may even go unsuspected during life.
In the adult form of metachromatic leukodystrophy, initial symptoms, which begin after age 16, are usually psychiatric and may lead to a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Disorders of movement and posture appear late. Differences from the late infantile form also include ability to demonstrate metachromatic material in paraffin- or celloidin-embedded sections and probably greater sulfatide excess in the gray than in the white matter in the adult form. The gallbladder is usually nonfunctional. Betts et al. (1968) described a man who was 28 when admitted to a psychiatric hospital for 'acute schizophrenia' and 35 when he died of bronchopneumonia. Muller et al. (1969) and Pilz and Muller (1969) described 2 unrelated women with this disorder. Affected sibs were recorded by Austin et al. (1968), among others.
Kihara et al. (1982) found partial cerebroside sulfatase deficiency (10-20% of normal activity in cultured fibroblasts) as the cause of neuropathy and myopathy since infancy in a 37-year-old white female. She had been institutionalized since age 16 for mental retardation. Waltz et al. (1987) described a 38-year-old man who had been diagnosed as schizophrenic and was treated for that condition for many years. The diagnosis of adult MLD was suspected because of white matter abnormalities detected by CT and MRI scanning of the brain; this diagnosis was confirmed by discovery of markedly reduced leukocyte arylsulfatase A activity. The man held a master's degree in physical education and worked full-time as a high school physical education teacher. Personality changes were first noted at about age 31.
Propping et al. (1986) studied consecutive admissions to a state psychiatric hospital and a group of inpatients with chronic psychiatric disorders. The data showed a slight preponderance in the lower levels of arylsulfatase A in leukocytes. Kohn et al. (1988) found no neurologic or EEG changes in MLD heterozygotes but found deficits in the neuropsychologic tests involving spatial or constructional components (but not in tests involving language skills). Tay-Sachs heterozygotes (272800) showed no consistent deficit in any component of the neurologic or neuropsychologic tests.
Marcao et al. (2005) reported a woman with adult-onset MLD confirmed by genetic analysis. She presented at age 37 years with dysfunctional and bizarre behavior, including progressive apathy, loss of interest in daily living routines and caring for her 3 children, and memory disturbances. She had no clinical signs of neuropathy, although MRI showed subcortical brain atrophy and periventricular white matter changes. Nerve conduction velocities were normal; sural nerve biopsy findings were consistent with a slowly progressive demyelinating neuropathy. Despite the relatively mild clinical phenotype, ARSA activity was less than 1% of control values.
Austin et al. (1964) determined that the defect in MLD involves the lysosomal enzyme arylsulfatase A. Since the metachromatic material is cerebroside sulfate, MLD is a sulfatide lipidosis. Stumpf and Austin (1971) presented evidence suggesting that the abnormality in arylsulfatase A is quantitatively and qualitatively different in the late infantile and juvenile forms of metachromatic leukodystrophy. Percy and Kaback (1971) found no difference in enzyme levels between the infantile and adult-onset types, and concluded that some other factor must account for the difference in age of onset.
Porter et al. (1971) corrected the metabolic defect in cultured fibroblasts by addition of arylsulfatase A to the medium. They found that cultured fibroblasts from late-onset metachromatic leukodystrophy hydrolyzed appreciable amounts of exogenous cerebroside sulfate, whereas fibroblasts from patients with the early-onset form hydrolyzed none. Studies of cell-free preparations showed no cerebroside sulfatase activity. Percy et al. (1977) found that cultured skin fibroblasts from the adult-onset patients, although clearly abnormal, were able to catabolize sulfatide significantly more effectively than cultured skin fibroblasts from late infantile patients.
By the technique of isoelectric focusing on cellulose acetate membranes, Farrell et al. (1979) found differences in arylsulfatase A isozymes that correlated with the clinical type of metachromatic leukodystrophy, i.e., juvenile or late infantile. Chang et al. (1982) showed that fusion of cells from the infantile and juvenile forms of MLD did not result in complementation of arylsulfatase A activity, and concluded that they are allelic disorders.
In the cells from patients with juvenile and adult forms of MLD, von Figura et al. (1983) found severe deficiency in the arylsulfatase polypeptide but a rate of synthesis that was 20 to 50% of control. In the absence of NH4Cl, the mutant enzyme was rapidly degraded upon transport into lysosomes. In the presence of inhibitors of thiol proteases, e.g., leupeptin, arylsulfatase A polypeptides were partially protected from degradation with increase in catalytic activity of arylsulfatase A and improved ability of the cells to degrade cerebroside sulfates. Therapeutic use of this approach was suggested. The approach might be useful in other lysosomal storage diseases in which an unstable mutant enzyme is produced, e.g., the late form of glycogen storage disease II (232300). In a study of 8 patients with the juvenile form of MLD, von Figura et al. (1986) found that the mutation leads to the synthesis of arylsulfatase A polypeptides with increased susceptibility to cysteine proteinases. Multiple allelic mutations within this group were suggested by clinical heterogeneity, variability in residual activity, and response to inhibitors (cysteine proteinases).
Pseudoarylsulfatase A deficiency
Pseudoarylsulfatase A deficiency refers to a condition of apparent ARSA enzyme deficiency in persons without neurologic abnormalities. Dubois et al. (1977) described very low arylsulfatase A and cerebroside sulfatase activities in leukocytes of healthy members of a metachromatic leukodystrophy family. Langenbeck et al. (1977) proposed a one locus, multiple allele hypothesis to explain the peculiar findings in that kindred.
Butterworth et al. (1978) reported a child with very low levels of the enzyme whose mother was, seemingly, heterozygous and whose father carried a variant gene giving a very low in vitro level. They concluded that low arylsulfatase A is not necessarily indicative of this disease, which should be taken into consideration when screening for the disease.
A pseudodeficiency allele at the arylsulfatase A locus was delineated by Schaap et al. (1981). Clinically healthy persons with ARSA levels in the range of MLD patients have been found among the relatives of MLD patients. Cultured fibroblasts from persons with pseudodeficiency catabolize cerebroside sulfate; fibroblasts from MLD patients do not. Zlotogora and Bach (1983) pointed out that lysosomal hydrolases deficient in cases of metachromatic leukodystrophy, Tay-Sachs disease, Fabry disease, and Krabbe disease have also been found to be deficient in healthy persons. The authors suggested that most of the latter cases represent the compound heterozygote for the deficient allele and another allele coding for an in vitro low enzyme activity (pseudodeficiency).
Chang and Davidson (1983) could demonstrate no restoration of activity of arylsulfatase A in hybrid cells created from cells of individuals with MLD and individuals with pseudo-ARSA deficiency. They concluded, therefore, that the 2 mutations are allelic. They showed that the 2 conditions can be distinguished in the laboratory by a simple electrophoretic analysis of residual ARSA activity.
Kihara et al. (1986) noted that the apparent enzyme deficiency in persons without neurologic abnormalities is due in part to the nonspecificity of the synthetic substrates used for assays and in part to a high redundancy of arylsulfatase A.
Austin et al. (1964) determined that the defect concerns the lysosomal enzyme arylsulfatase A. Austin's test to demonstrate absence of arylsulfatase A activity in the urine was useful in early diagnosis (Greene et al., 1967). Kaback and Howell (1970) demonstrated profound deficiency of arylsulfatase A in cultured skin fibroblasts of patients and an intermediate deficiency in carriers. Normally enzyme levels are low in midtrimester amniotic cells; hence, homozygotes cannot be reliably identified by amniocentesis.
Poenaru et al. (1988) described a method of first-trimester prenatal diagnosis of metachromatic leukodystrophy using immunoprecipitation-electrophoresis on chorionic villus material.
Baldinger et al. (1987) discussed the complications of genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis resulting from the occurrence of the pseudodeficiency phenotype.
Bayever et al. (1985) observed apparent improvement (i.e., continued developmental progress) in a boy with late infantile MLD given a bone marrow transplant from an HLA-identical sister. Krivit et al. (1990) reported improvement in neurophysiologic function and sulfatide metabolism in an affected 10-year-old girl who had received a bone marrow transplant 5 years previously.
Pierson et al. (2008) reported 3 sibs with juvenile MLD who received unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation at different stages of disease: they were 8, 6, and 4 years old, respectively, at the time of treatment. The 8-year-old boy had an IQ of 59, spasticity, and white matter lesions on MRI before transplant and experienced disease progression after transplant. His 6-year-old brother had an IQ of 88 and moderate white matter lesions before transplant, but remained neurologically stable and showed some improvement in nerve conduction velocity and near resolution of white matter lesions after transplant. His 4-year-old sister had no neurologic impairment or white matter lesions before transplant, and remained normal after transplant. She developed mild white matter lesions about 6 months after transplant, but these resolved within the following 6 months. Pierson et al. (2008) concluded that pretransplantion neurologic status is the best predictor of outcome following cord blood transplant and that cord blood transplant can stop disease progression in MLD.
Wang et al. (2011) described the ACMG standards and guidelines for the diagnostic confirmation and management of presymptomatic individuals with lysosomal storage diseases.
Biffi et al. (2013) performed lentiviral hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy on 3 asymptomatic children with ARSA deficiency known because of older sibs with early-onset MLD carrying the same mutations. Following myeloablative busulfan conditioning, patients were transduced with hematopoietic stem cells with the lentiviral gene. There was high-level stable engraftment of the transduced HSCs in bone marrow and peripheral blood of all patients at all times tested, with 45 to 80% of bone marrow-derived hematopoietic colonies harboring the vector. ARSA activity was reconstituted to above-normal values in the hematopoietic lineages and in the cerebrospinal fluid. None of the 3 patients had progression of disease at up to 24 months after treatment, even after the time of onset projected from sib cases.
In patients with MLD, Polten et al. (1991), Gieselmann et al. (1991), Kondo et al. (1991), Bohne et al. (1991), and Fluharty et al. (1991) identified mutations in the ARSA gene (e.g., 607574.0003).
Gieselmann et al. (1994) stated that 31 amino acid substitutions, 1 nonsense mutation, 3 small deletions, 3 splice donor site mutations, and 1 combined missense/splice donor site mutation had been identified in the ARSA gene in metachromatic leukodystrophy. Two of these mutant alleles account for about 25% of MLD alleles each.
Gieselmann et al. (1989) determined 2 pseudodeficiency alleles of the ARSA gene (607574.0001-607574.0002).
Hohenschutz et al. (1988) described a probable case of the genetic compound between metachromatic leukodystrophy and pseudodeficiency. The patient developed slight spasticity of the left leg at the age of 36 years and left-sided retrobulbar neuritis at the age of 62, together with slight spasticity of both legs. The diagnosis of encephalomyelitis disseminata was made. There were psychiatric manifestations as well. Based on the facts that the pseudodeficiency allele at the ARSA locus is common (gene frequency = 13.7 to 17%), that genetic compounds between the pseudodeficiency allele and the true deficiency allele may be as frequent as 0.073%, and that the residual enzyme activity may fall below a critical threshold in such individuals, Hohenschutz et al. (1989) suggested that the compound heterozygote genotype might be associated with neuropsychiatric disorders of late onset.
In 34 individuals with low ASA activity, Kappler et al. (1991) identified 3 different classes: homozygosity for the pseudodeficiency allele (ASAp/ASAp) (10 individuals), compound heterozygosity for ASAp and ASA- (6 individuals), and homozygosity of ASA- (16 individuals). The genotypes exhibited different levels of residual ASA activity. ASAp/ASAp was associated with normal sulfatide degrading capacity and a reduced ASA activity that was the highest of the 3 classes (10-50% of normal). ASAp/ASAp subjects showed no evidence of MLD. ASAp/ASA- subjects showed mildly reduced sulfatide degrading capacity and a reduced ASA activity that was in between the other 2 classes (10% of controls). ASAp/ASA- subjects were either healthy or showed mild neurologic abnormalities. ASA-/ASA- subjects showed markedly reduced sulfatide degradation and markedly reduced ASA activity. Only the ASA-/ASA- genotype was associated with the development of both early- and late-onset MLD, including neuropsychiatric symptoms.
Berger et al. (1999) described a family with 3 sibs, 1 of whom developed classic late infantile MLD, fatal at age 5 years, with deficient ARSA activity and increased galactosylsulfatide (GS) excretion. The other 2 sibs, apparently healthy at 12.5 and 15 years, and their father, apparently healthy as well, presented ARSA and GS values within the range of MLD patients. Mutation analysis demonstrated that 3 different ARSA mutations accounted for the intrafamilial phenotypic heterogeneity. One of the mutations, although clearly modifying ARSA and GS levels, apparently had little significance for clinical manifestation of MLD, The results demonstrated that in certain genetic conditions the ARSA and GS values may not be paralleled by clinical disease, a finding with serious diagnostic and prognostic implications. Moreover, further ARSA alleles functionally may exist which, together with 0-type mutations may cause ARSA and GS levels in the pathologic range but no clinical manifestation of the disease.
Regis et al. (2002) identified a late infantile MLD patient carrying on one allele a novel E253K mutation (607574.0044) and the known T391S polymorphism, and on the other allele the common P426L mutation (607574.0004), usually associated with the adult or juvenile form of the disease, and the N350S (607574.0002) and *96A-G pseudodeficiency mutations. To analyze the contribution of mutations based on the same allele to enzyme activity reduction, as well as the possible phenotype implications, they performed transient expression experiments using ARSA cDNAs carrying the identified mutations separately or in combination. Their results indicated that mutants carrying multiple mutations cause greater reduction of ARSA activity than do the corresponding single mutants, the total deficiency likely corresponding to the sum of the reductions attributed to each mutation. Consequently, each mutation may contribute to the ARSA activity reduction, and, therefore, to the degree of disease severity. This is particularly important for the alleles containing a disease-causing mutation and the pseudodeficiency mutations: in these alleles pseudodeficiency could play a role in affecting the clinical phenotype.
Rauschka et al. (2006) evaluated 42 patients with late-onset MLD, 22 of whom were homozygous for the P426L mutation and 20 of whom were compound heterozygous for I179S (607574.0008) and another pathogenic ARSA mutation. Patients homozygous for the P426L mutation presented with progressive gait disturbance caused by spastic paraparesis or cerebellar ataxia; mental disturbance was absent or insignificant at disease onset but became more apparent as the disease evolved. Peripheral nerve conduction velocities were decreased. In contrast, patients who were heterozygous for I179S presented with schizophrenia-like behavior changes, social dysfunction, and mental decline, but motor deficits were scarce. There was less residual ARSA activity in those with P426L mutations compared to those with I179S mutations.
Biffi et al. (2008) reported 26 patients with MLD who were classified clinically according to age at onset into late-infantile (17), early juvenile (6), late-juvenile (2), and adult (1). These patients were found to carry 18 mutations in the ARSA gene, including 10 rare and 8 novel mutations, that were classified as null '0' alleles lacking residual activity and 'R' alleles with residual activity. The null/null homozygous patients were the most severely affected with severe clinical manifestations, profound motor and cognitive deficits, and rapid disease progression. Patients who were null/R compound heterozygous showed a similar presentation and disease evolution, although less rapid, to null/null homozygotes. Despite some variability, all R/R homozygous patients showed a milder disease burden and slower progression when compared with null/null and null/R subjects. Biffi et al. (2008) observed early involvement of the peripheral nervous system in all patients with at least 1 null allele, and the authors suggested that evaluation of nerve conduction velocities could be used as a frontline test for all MLD patients,
Although MLD occurs panethnically, with an estimated frequency of 1/40,000, Heinisch et al. (1995) found it to be more frequent among Arabs living in 2 restricted areas in Israel. Ten families with affected children were found, 3 in the Jerusalem region and 7 in a small area in lower Galilee. Whereas all patients from the Jerusalem region were homozygous for the splice donor site mutation at the border of exon/intron 2 (607574.0003), 5 different mutations were found in the 7 families from lower Galilee, all of them in homozygous state. Two of the families were Muslim Arabs and 2 were Christian Arabs. Four different haplotypes were represented by the 5 mutations. Zlotogora et al. (1994) studied the ARSA haplotypes defined by 3 intragenic polymorphic sites in 3 Muslim Arab families and 1 Christian Arab family from Jerusalem with the splice donor site mutation at the border of exon/intron 2. The parents were first cousins in all 4 families, but no relationship between these families was known. All 4 patients had the same haplotype, i.e., BglI(1), BamHI(1), BsrI(1), which is rare (3.9%) in the general population. Zlotogora et al. (1994) found the same haplotype in 8 non-Arab patients from the US and Europe who were homozygous for this allele. The strong association between this mutation and haplotype suggested a common origin for the mutation, which may have been introduced into Jerusalem at the time of the Crusades.
Holve et al. (2001) found that cases of MLD among Navajo Indians were clustered in a portion of the western Navajo Nation to which a small number of Navajo fled after armed conflict with the United States Army in the 1860s. The observed incidence of MLD in that region was 1/2,520 live births, with an estimated carrier frequency of 1/25 to 1/50. No cases were observed in the eastern part of the Navajo Nation over a period of 18 years (60,000 births). Bottleneck and founder effect from the mid-19th century could explain the high incidence of MLD as well as a number of other heritable disorders among the Navajo.
In Israel, Herz and Bach (1984) estimated the frequency of the pseudodeficiency allele to be about 15%. In a Spanish population, Chabas et al. (1993) estimated the frequency of the pseudodeficiency allele to be 12.7%.
In a retrospective hospital- and clinic-based study involving 122 children with an inherited leukodystrophy, Bonkowsky et al. (2010) found that the most common diagnoses were metachromatic leukodystrophy (8.2%), Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (312080) (7.4%), mitochondrial diseases (4.9%), and adrenoleukodystrophy (300100) (4.1%). No final diagnosis was reported in 51% of patients. The disorder was severe: epilepsy was found in 49%, mortality was 34%, and the average age at death was 8.2 years. The population incidence of leukodystrophy in general was found to be 1 in 7,663 live births.
Yatziv and Russell (1981) reported 3 adult sibs of Sephardic Jewish extraction who had a form of primary dystonia with onset in childhood. There was a marked deficiency of arylsulfatase A in urine, leukocytes, and fibroblasts. The clinically normal parents both showed a 50% reduction in ARSA activity. Yatziv and Russell (1981) reported the disorder in this family as an 'unusual form of metachromatic leukodystrophy,' but Khan et al. (2003) later reported that genetic analysis of the family indicated pseudoarylsulfatase A deficiency: the mother and all 3 sibs were homozygous, and the father was heterozygous, for the polyA pseudodeficiency allele (607574.0001). Khan et al. (2003) diagnosed the family with autosomal recessive primary dystonia (DYT2; 224500); Charlesworth et al. (2015) identified a homozygous missense mutation in the HPCA gene (N75K; 142622.0001) in the affected individuals, thus confirming the diagnosis.
Since no naturally occurring animal model of metachromatic leukodystrophy is available, Hess et al. (1996) generated Arsa-deficient mice by targeted disruption of the gene in embryonic stem cells. Deficient animals stored the sphingolipid cerebroside-3-sulfate in various neuronal and nonneuronal tissues. Storage pattern was comparable with that in affected humans, but gross defect of white matter with progressive demyelination was not observed up to the age of 2 years. Reduction of axonal cross-sectional area and astrogliosis were observed in 1-year-old mice; activation of microglia started at 1 year and was generalized at 2 years. Purkinje cell dendrites showed altered morphology. In the acoustic ganglion numbers of neurons and myelinated fibers were severely decreased, which was accompanied by loss of brainstem auditory-evoked potentials. Neurologic examination demonstrated significant impairment of neuromotor coordination.
Matzner et al. (2005) treated Arsa-knockout mice by intravenous injection of recombinant human ARSA. Uptake of injected enzyme was high into liver, moderate into peripheral nervous system (PNS) and kidney, and very low into brain. A single injection led to a time- and dose-dependent decline of the excess sulfatide in PNS and kidney by up to 70%, but no reduction was seen in brain. Four weekly injections of 20 mg/kg body weight not only reduced storage in peripheral tissues progressively, but also reduced sulfatide storage in brain and spinal cord. Histopathology of kidney and central nervous system was ameliorated. Improved neuromotor coordination capabilities and normalized peripheral compound motor action potential suggested benefit of enzyme replacement therapy on nervous system function.
(1) Greenfield JG: Form of progressive cerebral sclerosis in infants associated with primary degeneration of interfascicular glia. Proc Roy Soc Med 26: 690-697, 1933
(2) Van Bogaert LV, Dewulf A: Diffuse progressive leukodystrophy in the adult with production of metachromatic degenerative products (Alzheimer-Baroncini). Arch Neurol Psychiat 42: 1083-1097, 1939
(3) Austin JH: Metachromatic form of diffuse cerebral sclerosis. III. Significance of sulfatide and other lipid abnormalities in white matter and kidney. Neurology 10: 470-483, 1960
(4) Jervis GA: Infantile metachromatic leukodystrophy (Greenfield's disease). J Neuropath Exp Neurol 19: 323-341, 1960
(5) Black JW, Cumings JN: Infantile metachromatic leukodystrophy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 24: 233-239, 1961
(6) Lyon G et al. Leucodystrophie metachromatique infantile familiale: etude de deux observations, dont une avec examen anatomique et chimique. Rev Neurol 104: 508-533, 1961
(7) Hagberg B et al. Sulfatide lipidosis in childhood. Am J Dis Child 104: 644-656, 1962
(8) Sourander P, Svennerholm L: Sulphatide lipidosis in the adult with the clinical picture of progressive organic dementia with epileptic seizuRes Acta Neuropath 1: 384-396, 1962
(9) Austin J et al. Abnormal sulphatase activities in two human diseases (metachromatic leukodystrophy and gargoylism). Biochem J 93: 15C-17C, 1964
(10) Masters PL et al. Familial leucodystrophy. Arch Dis Child 39: 345-355, 1964
(11) Austin J et al. Metachromatic form of diffuse cerebral sclerosis. IV. Low sulfatase activity in the urine of nine living patients with metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD). Arch Neurol 12: 447-455, 1965
(12) Schutta HS et al. A family study of the late infantile and juvenile forms of metachromatic leukodystrophy. J Med Genet 3: 86-91, 1966
(13) Austin JH: Some recent findings in leukodystrophies and in gargoylism. In Aronson SM, Volk BW (eds.): Inborn Disorders of Sphingolipid Metabolism. Oxford: Pergamon Press, Pp. 359-387, 1967
(14) Cravioto H et al. Metachromatic leukodystrophy (sulfatide lipidoses) cultured in vitro. Science 156: 243-245, 1967
(15) Greene H et al. Arylsulfatase A in the urine and metachromatic leukodystrophy. J Pediat 71: 709-711, 1967
(16) Austin J et al. Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD). VIII. MLD in adults: diagnosis and pathogenesis. Arch Neurol 18: 225-240, 1968
(17) Betts TA et al. Adult metachromatic leukodystrophy (sulphatide lipidosis) simulating acute schizophrenia: report of a case. Neurology 18: 1140-1142, 1968
(18) Percy AK, Brady RO: Metachromatic leukodystrophy: diagnosis with samples of venous blood. Science 161: 594-595, 1968
(19) Muller D et al. Studies on adult metachromatic leukodystrophy. I. Clinical, morphological and histochemical observations in two cases. J Neurol Sci 9: 567-584, 1969
(20) Pilz H, Muller D. Studies on adult metachromatic leukodystrophy. II. Biochemical aspects of adult cases of metachromatic leukodystrophy. J Neurol Sci 9: 585-595, 1969
(21) Kaback MM, Howell RR: Infantile metachromatic leukodystrophy: heterozygote detection in skin fibroblasts and possible applications to intrauterine diagnosis. New Eng J Med 282: 1336-1340, 1970
(22) Gustavson K-H, Hagberg B. The incidence and genetics of metachromatic leukodystrophy in northern Sweden. Acta Paediat Scand 60: 585-590, 1971
(23) Nicholls RG, Roy AG: Arylsulfatases. In Boyer PD (eds.): The Enzymes. New York: Academic Press, Pp. 21-41, 1971
(24) Percy AK, Kaback MM: Infantile and adult-onset metachromatic leukodystrophy: biochemical comparisons and predictive diagnosis. New Eng J Med 285: 785-787, 1971
(25) Porter MT et al. A correlation of intracellular cerebroside sulfatase activity in fibroblasts with latency in metachromatic leukodystrophy. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 44: 660-666, 1971
(26) Porter MT etal. Correction of abnormal cerebroside sulfate metabolism in cultured metachromatic leukodystrophy fibroblasts. Science 172: 1263-1265, 1971
(27) Stumpf DA, Austin J: Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD). IX. Qualitative and quantitative differences in urinary arylsulfatase A in different forms of MLD. Arch Neurol 24: 117-124, 1971
(28) Moser HW: Sulfatide lipidosis: metachromatic leukodystrophy. In Stanbury JB et al. (eds.): The Metabolic Basis of Inherited Disease. New York: McGraw-Hill, Pp. 688-729, 1972
(29) Beratis NG etal. Detection of homozygotes and heterozygotes for metachromatic leukodystrophy in lymphoid cell lines and peripheral leukocytes. Ann Hum Genet 38: 485-493, 1975
(30) Quigley HA, Green WR: Clinical and ultrastructural ocular histopathologic studies of adult-onset metachromatic leukodystrophy. Am J Ophthal 82: 472-479, 1976
(31) DeLuca C et al. Arylsulfatase-A (ARSA) synteny with beta-glucuronidase (BGUS) indicates assignment to human chromosome 7 in man-Chinese hamster hybrids. Winnipeg Gene Mapping Conf., 1977
(32) Dubois G et al. Very low arylsulfatase A and cerebroside sulfatase activities in leukocytes of healthy members of metachromatic leukodystrophy family. Am J Hum Genet 29: 191-194, 1977
(33) Goebel HH et al. Adult metachromatic leukodystrophy. II. Ultrastructural findings in peripheral nerve and skeletal muscle. Europ Neurol 15: 308-317, 1977
(34) Langenbeck U et al. Inheritance of metachromatic leukodystrophy. Am J Hum Genet 29: 639-640, 1977
(35) Percy AK et al. Metachromatic leukodystrophy: comparison of early- and late-onset forms. Neurology 27: 933-941, 1977
(36) Pilz H et al. Adult metachromatic leukodystrophy. I. Clinical manifestation in a female aged 44 years, previously diagnosed in the preclinical state. Europ Neurol 15: 301-30, 1977
(37) Bosch EP, Hart MN: Late adult-onset metachromatic leukodystrophy: dementia and polyneuropathy in a 63-year-old man. Arch Neurol 35: 475-477, 1978
(38) Bruns GAP et al. Expression of human arylsulfatase A in man-hamster somatic cell hybrids. Cytogenet Cell Genet 22: 182-185, 1978
(39) Butterworth J et al. Low arylsulphatase A activity in a family without metachromatic leukodystrophy. Clin Genet 14: 213-218, 1978
(40) DeLuca C et al. Lysosomal arylsulfatase deficiencies in humans: chromosome assignment of arylsulfatase A and B. Proc Nat Acad Sci 76: 1957-1961, 1979
(41) Farrell DF et al. Multiple molecular forms of arylsulfatase A in different forms of metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD). Neurology 29: 16-20, 1979
(42) Hors-Cayla MC et al. Confirmation of the assignment of the gene for arylsulfatase A to chromosome 22 using somatic cell hybrids. Hum Genet 49: 33-39, 1979
(43) Chang, P. L. and Davidson, R. G. Complementation of arylsulfatase A in somatic hybrids of metachromatic leukodystrophy and multiple sulfatase deficiency disorder fibroblasts. Proc Nat Acad Sci 77: 6166-6170, 1980
(44) Geurts van Kessel AHM et al. Regional localization of the genes coding for human ACO2, ARSA, and NAGA on chromosome 22. Cytogenet Cell Genet 28: 169-172, 1980
(45) Haltia T et al. Juvenile metachromatic leukodystrophy: clinical, biochemical, and neuropathologic studies in nine new cases. Arch Neurol 37: 42-46, 1980
(46) Zlotogora J et al. Metachromatic leukodystrophy in the Habbanite Jews: high frequency in a genetic isolate and screening for heterozygotes. Am J Hum Genet 32: 663-669, 1980
(47) Farrell DF: Heterozygote detection in MLD: allelic mutations at the ARA locus. Hum Genet 59: 129-134, 1981
(48) Francke U et al. Conserved autosomal syntenic group on mouse (MMU) chromosome 15 and human (HSA) chromosome 22: assignment of a gene for arylsulfatase A to MMU 15 and regional mapping of DIA1, ARSA, and ACO2 on HSA22. Cytogenet Cell Genet 31: 58-69, 1981
(49) Schaap T et al. The genetics of the aryl sulfatase A locus. Am J Hum Genet 33: 531-539, 1981
(50) Yatziv S, Russell A. An unusual form of metachromatic leukodystrophy in three siblings. Clin Genet 19: 222-227, 1981
(51) Chang PL et al. Somatic cell hybridization studies on the genetic regulation and allelic mutations in metachromatic leukodystrophy. Hum Genet 61: 231-235, 1982
(52) Eto Y et al. Prenatal diagnosis of metachromatic leukodystrophy: a diagnosis by amniotic fluid and its confirmation. Arch Neurol 39: 29-32, 1982
(53) Kihara H et al. Metachromatic leukodystrophy caused by a partial cerebroside sulfatase defect. Clin Genet 21: 253-261, 1982
(54) Kihara H. Genetic heterogeneity in metachromatic leukodystrophy. Am J Hum Genet 34: 171-181, 1982
(55) Chang PL, Davidson RG: Pseudo arylsulfatase-A deficiency in healthy individuals: genetic and biochemical relationship to metachromatic leukodystrophy. Proc Nat Acad Sci 80: 7323-7327, 1983
(56) Skomer C et al. Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD). XV: adult MLD with focal lesions by computed tomograph. Arch Neurol 40: 354-355, 1983
(57) Tonnesen T et al. Metachromatic leukodystrophy and pseudoarylsulfatase A deficiency in a Danish family. Acta Paediat Scand 72: 175-178, 1983
(58) von Figura K et al. Juvenile and adult metachromatic leukodystrophy: partial restoration of arylsulfatase A (cerebroside sulfatase) activity by inhibitors of thiol proteinases. Proc Nat Acad Sci 80: 6066-6070, 1983
(59) Waheed A et al. Two allelic forms of human arylsulfatase A with different numbers of asparagine-linked oligosaccharides. Am J Hum Genet 35: 228-233, 1983
(60) Zlotogora J, Bach G. Deficiency of lysosomal hydrolases in apparently healthy individuals. Am J Med Genet 14: 73-80, 1983
(61) Herz B, Bach G. Arylsulfatase A in pseudodeficiency. Hum Genet 66: 147-150, 1984
(62) McKhann G: Metachromatic leukodystrophy: clinical and enzymic parameters. Neuropediatrics 15(Suppl):4-10, 1984
(63) Tonnesen T et al. Atypical metachromatic leukodystrophy? Problems with the biochemical diagnosis. Hum Genet 67: 170-173, 1984
(64) Bayever E et al. Bone-marrow transplantation for metachromatic leucodystrophy. Lancet II: 471-473, 1985
(65) Farrell K et al. Pseudoarylsulfatase-A deficiency in the neurologically impaired patient. Can J Neurol Sci 12:274-277, 1985
(66) Kihara H et al. Attenuated activities and structural alterations of arylsulfatase A in tissues from subjects with pseudo arylsulfatase A deficiency. Hum Genet 74: 59-62, 1986
(67) Propping P et al. The influence of low arylsulfatase A activity on neuropsychiatric morbidity: a large-scale screening in patients. Hum Genet 74: 244-248, 1986
(68) Sanguinetti N et al. The arylsulphatases of chorionic villi: potential problems in the first-trimester diagnosis of metachromatic leucodystrophy and Maroteaux-Lamy disease. Clin Genet 30: 302-308, 1986
(69) von Figura K et al. Heterogeneity in late-onset metachromatic leukodystrophy: effect of inhibitors of cysteine proteinases. Am J Hum Genet 39: 371-382, 1986
(70) Baldinger s et al. Pseudodeficiency of arylsulfatase A: a counseling dilemma. Clin Genet 31: 70-76, 1987
(71) Waltz G et al. Adult metachromatic leukodystrophy: value of computed tomographic scanning and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. Arch Neurol 44: 225-227, 1987
(72) Hohenschutz C et al. Probable metachromatic leukodystrophy/pseudodeficiency compound heterozygote at the arylsulfatase A locus with neurological and psychiatric symptomatology. Am J Med Genet 31: 169-175, 1988
(73) Kohn H et al. Neuropsychological deficits in obligatory heterozygotes for metachromatic leukodystrophy. Hum Genet 79: 8-12, 1988
(74) Poenaru L et al. First trimester prenatal diagnosis of metachromatic leukodystrophy on chorionic villi by 'immunoprecipitation-electrophoresis.'. J Inherit Metab Dis 11: 123-130, 1988
(75) Gieselmann, V.; Polten, A.; Kreysing, J and von Figura, K. Arylsulfatase A pseudodeficiency: loss of a polyadenylylation signal and N-glycosylation site. Proc Nat Acad Sci 86: 9436-9440, 1989
(76) Hohenschutz C et al. Pseudodeficiency of arylsulfatase A: a common genetic polymorphism with possible disease implications. Hum Genet 82: 45-48, 1989
(77) Stein C et al. Cloning and expression of human arylsulfatase A. J Biol Chem 264: 1252-1259, 1989
(78) Krivit W et al. Treatment of late infantile metachromatic leukodystrophy by bone marrow transplantation. New Eng J Med 322: 28-32, 1990
(79) Bohne W et al. An 11-bp deletion in the arylsulfatase A gene of a patient with late infantile metachromatic leukodystrophy. Hum Genet 87: 155-158, 1991
(80) Fluharty AL et al. Two new arylsulfatase A (ARSA) mutations in a juvenile metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) patient. Am J Hum Genet 49: 1340-1350, 1991
(81) Gieselmann V et al. An assay for the rapid detection of the arylsulfatase A pseudodeficiency allele facilitates diagnosis and genetic counseling for metachromatic leukodystrophy. Hum Genet 86: 251-255, 1991
(82) Gieselmann V et al. Mutations in the arylsulfatase A pseudodeficiency allele causing metachromatic leukodystrophy. Am J Hum Genet 49: 407-413, 1991
(83) Kondo R et al. Identification of a mutation in the arylsulfatase A gene of a patient with adult-type metachromatic leukodystrophy. Am J Hum Genet 48: 971-978, 1991
(84) Nelson PV et al. Population frequency of the arylsulphatase A pseudo-deficiency allele. Hum Genet 87: 87-88, 1991
(85) Polten A et al. Molecular basis of different forms of metachromatic leukodystrophy. New Eng J Med 324: 18-22, 1991
(86) Kappler J et al. Late-onset metachromatic leukodystrophy: molecular pathology in two siblings. Ann Neurol 31: 256-261, 1992
(87) Li ZG et al. Diagnosis of arylsulfatase A deficiency. Am J Med Genet 43: 976-982, 1992
(88) Narahara K et al. Terminal 22q deletion associated with a partial deficiency of arylsulphatase A. J Med Genet 29: 432-433, 1992
(89) Barth ML et al. Missense mutations in the arylsulphatase A genes of metachromatic leukodystrophy patients. Hum Mol Genet 2 (12): 2117-21, 1993
(90) Chabas A et al. Frequency of the arylsulphatase A pseudodeficiency allele in the Spanish population. Clin Genet 44: 320-323, 1993
(91) Kreysing J et al. High residual arylsulfatase A (ARSA) activity in a patient with late-infantile metachromatic leukodystrophy. Am J Hum Genet 53: 339-346, 1993
(92) Shen N et al. Complications in the genotypic molecular diagnosis of pseudo arylsulfatase A deficiency. Am J Med Genet 45: 631-637, 1993
(93) Barth ML et al. Frequency of arylsulphatase A pseudodeficiency associated mutations in a healthy population. J Med Genet 31 (9): 667-71, 1994
(94) Barth ML et al. The arylsulphatase A gene and molecular genetics of metachromatic leucodystrophy. J Med Genet 31 (9): 663-6, 1994
(95) Harvey JS et al. Metachromatic leukodystrophy: a nonsense mutation (Q486X) in the arylsulphatase A (ARSA) gene. Hum Mol Genet 3 (1): 207, 1994
(96) Hasegawa Y et al. Single exon mutation in arylsulfatase A gene has two effects: loss of enzyme activity and aberrant splicing. Hum Genet 93 (4): 415-20, 1994
(97) Zlotogora J et al. Arylsulfatase A pseudodeficiency: a common polymorphism which is associated with a unique haplotype. Am J Med Genet 52 (2): 146-50, 1994
(98) Zlotogora J et al. A single origin for the most frequent mutation causing late infantile metachromatic leucodystrophy. J Med Genet 31 (9): 672-4, 1994
(99) Coulter-Mackie MB et al. Metachromatic leucodystrophy (MLD) in a patient with a constitutional ring chromosome 22. J Med Genet 32 (10): 787-91, 1995
(100) Luyten JA et al. Metachromatic leukodystrophy: a 12-bp deletion in exon 2 of the arylsulfatase A gene in a late infantile variant. Hum Genet 96 (3): 357-60, 1995
(101) Regis S et al. An AT-deletion causing a frameshift in the arylsulfatase A gene of a late infantile metachromatic leukodystrophy patient. Hum Genet 96 (2): 233-5, 1995
(102) Kafert S et al. A missense mutation P136L in the arylsulfatase A gene causes instability and loss of activity of the mutant enzyme. Hum Genet 95 (2): 201-4, 1995
(103) Heinisch U et al. Multiple mutations are responsible for the high frequency of metachromatic leukodystrophy in a small geographic area. Am J Hum Genet 56 (1): 51-7, 1995
(104) Hess B et al. Phenotype of arylsulfatase A-deficient mice: relationship to human metachromatic leukodystrophy. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 93: 14821-14826, 1996
(105) Hwu WL et al. Arylsulfatase A pseudodeficiency in Chinese. Hum Genet 97 (2): 148-9, 1996
(106) Draghia R et al. Metachromic leukodystrophy: identification of the first deletion in exon 1 and of nine novel point mutations in the arylsulfatase gene. Human Mutat. 9-234-242, 1997
(107) Ott R et al. Evolutionary origins of two tightly linked mutations in arylsulfatase-A pseudodeficiency. Hum. Genet. 101: 135-140, 1997
(108) Gomez-Lira M et al. Molecular genetic characterization of two metachromatic leukodystrophy patients who carry the T799G mutation and show different phenotypes; description of a novel null-type mutation. Hum. Genet. 102: 459-463, 1998
(109) Harvey JS et al. Importance of the glycosylation and polyadenylation variants in metachromatic leukodystrophy pseudodeficiency phenotype. Hum. Molec. Genet. 7: 1215-1219, 1998
(110) Ricketts MH et al. The R496H mutation of arylsulfatase A does not cause metachromatic leukodystrophy. Hum. Mutat. 12: 238-239, 1998
(111) Berger J et al. Coincidence of two novel arylsulfatase A alleles and mutation 459+1G-A within a family with metachromatic leukodystrophy: molecular basis of phenotypic heterogeneity. Hum. Mutat. 13: 61-68, 1999
(112) Felice KL et al. Adult-onset MLD: a gene mutation with isolated polyneuropathy. Neurology 55: 1036-1039, 2000
(113) Comabella, M.; Waye, J. S.; Raguer, N.; Eng, B.; Dominguez, C.; Navarro, C.; Borras, C.; Krivit, W.; Montalban, X. : Late-onset metachromatic leukodystrophy clinically presenting as isolated peripheral neuropathy: compound heterozygosity for the IVS2+1G-to-A mutation and a newly identified missense mutation (thr408-to-ile) in a Spanish family. Ann. Neurol. 50: 108-112, 2001
(114) Holve S et al. Metachromatic leukodystrophy in the Navajo: fallout of the American-Indian Wars of the nineteenth century. Am J Med Genet 101: 203-208, 2001
(115) Lugowska, A.; Berger, J.; Tylki-Szymanska, A.; Czartoryska, B.; Loschl, B.; Molzer, B. : High prevalence of I179S mutation in patients with late-onset metachromatic leukodystrophy. (Letter) Clin. Genet. 61: 389-390, 2002
(116) Regis S et al. Contribution of arylsulfatase A mutations located on the same allele to enzyme activity reduction and metachromatic leukodystrophy severity. Hum. Genet. 110: 351-355, 2002
(117) Khan, N. L.; Wood, N. W.; Bhatia, K. P. : Autosomal recessive, DYT2-like primary torsion dystonia: a new family. Neurology 61: 1801-1803, 2003
(118) Marcao, A. M.; Wiest, R.; Schindler, K.; Wiesmann, U.; Weis, J.; Schroth, G.; Miranda, M. C. S.; Sturzenegger, M.; Gieselmann, V. : Adult onset metachromatic leukodystrophy without electroclinical peripheral nervous system involvement: a new mutation in the ARSA gene. Arch. Neurol. 62: 309-313, 2005
(119) Rauschka, H.; Colsch, B.; Baumann, N.; Wevers, R.; Schmidbauer, M.; Krammer, M.; Turpin, J.-C.; Lefevre, M.; Olivier, C.; Tardieu, S.; Krivit, W.; Moser, H.; and 10 others : Late-onset metachromatic leukodystrophy: genotype strongly influences phenotype. Neurology 67: 859-863, 2006
(120) Biffi, A.; Cesani, M.; Fumagalli, F.; Del Carro, U.; Baldoli, C.; Canale, S.; Gerevini, S.; Amadio, S.; Falautano, M.; Rovelli, A.; Comi, G.; Roncarolo, M. G.; Sessa, M. : Metachromatic leukodystrophy-mutation analysis provides further evidence of genotype-phenotype correlation. Clin. Genet. 74: 349-357, 2008
(121) Pierson, T. M.; Bonnemann, C. G.; Finkel, R. S.; Bunin, N.; Tennekoon, G. I. : Umbilical cord blood transplantation for juvenile metachromatic leukodystrophy. Ann. Neurol. 64: 583-587, 2008
(122) Bonkowsky, J. L., Nelson, C., Kingston, J. L., Filloux, F. M., Mundorff, M. B., Srivastava, R. The burden of inherited leukodystrophies in children. Neurology 75: 718-725, 2010
(123) Wang, R. Y., Bodamer, O. A., Watson, M. S., Wilcox, W. R. Lysosomal storage diseases: diagnostic confirmation and management of presymptomatic individuals. Genet. Med. 13: 457-484, 2011
(124) Biffi, A., Montini, E., Lorioli, L., Cesani, M., Fumagalli, F., Plati, T., Baldoli, C., Martino, S., Calabria, A., Canale, S., Benedicenti, F., Vallanti, G., and 25 others. Lentiviral hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy benefits metachromatic leukodystrophy. Science 341: 864 only, 2013
(125) Charlesworth, G., Angelova, P. R., Bartolome-Robledo, F., Ryten, M., Trabzuni, D., Stamelou, M., Abramov, A. Y., Bhatia, K. P., Wood, N. W. Mutations in HPCA cause autosomal-recessive primary isolated dystonia. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 96: 657-665, 2015